of whitewashing, etc.
21. Cleanliness of walls and coiling
22. Disposal of Trade Wastes and Effluents
23. Ventilation and temperature
24. When artificial humidification not allowed
25. Provision of hygrometers
26. Exemption from maintenance of hygrometers
27. Copy of schedule to rule 23 to be affixed near every hygrometer
28. Temperature to be recorded at each hygrometer
29. Specifications of hygrometer
30. Thermometers to be maintained in efficient order
31. Inaccurate thermometer not to be used without fresh certificate
32. Hygrometer not to be affixed to wall, etc. unless protected by wood
33. No reading to be taken within 15 minutes of renewal of water
34. How to introduce steam for
35. Lighting of interior parts
36. Prevention of glare
37. Power of Chief Inspector to exempt
38. Quantity of drinking water
39. Source of supply
40. Means of supply
41. Cleanliness of well or reservoir
42. Report from Health Officer
43. Cooling of water
44. Latrine accommodation
45. Latrines to conform to public health requirements
46. Privacy of latrines
47. Sign Boards to be displayed
48. Urinal accommodation
49. Urinals to conform to public health requirements
50. Certain latrines and urinals to be connected to sewage system
51. Whitewash, colour washing of latrines and urinals
52. Concentration and maintenance of drains
53. Water taps in latrines
54. Number and location of spittoons
55. Type of spittoons
56. Cleaning of spittoons
Register prescribed under sub-section (i) of Section 11
The record of dates on which white washing, colour washing, varnishing, etc. are carried out shall be entered in a register maintained in Form......
Exemptions under sub-section (2) of section 11
(1) Clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 11 of the Act shall not apply to the class or description of factories or parts of factories specified in the schedule hereto
Provided that they are kept in a clean state by washing, sweeping, brushing, dusting, vacuum cleaning or other effective means.
Provided further that they are kept in a clean state by washing, sweeping, brushing, dusting, vacuum cleaning or other effective means.
Provided further that the said clause (d) shall continue to apply
(a) as respects factories or parts of factories specified in part A of the said schedule, to workrooms in which the amount of cubic space allowed for every person employed in the room is less than 14.2 Cubic meters;
(b) as respects factories or parts of factories specified in part B of the said schedule, to workrooms in which the amount of cubic space allowed for every person employed in the room is less than 70.0 cubic meters;
(c) to engine-houses, fitting shops, lunchrooms, canteens, shelters, creches, cloakrooms, rest rooms and wash places; and
(d) to such parts of walls, sides and tops of passages and staircases as are less than 6 meters above the floor or stair.
(2) If it appears to the Chief Inspector that any part of a factory, to which by virtue of sub-rule (1) any of the provisions of the said clause(d) do not apply, or apply as varied by sub-rule (1), is not being kept in a clean state, he may, by written notice, require the occupier to whitewash or colour wash, paint or varnish the same, and in the event of the occupier failing to comply with such requisition within two months from the date of the notice, sub-rule (1) shall cease to apply to such part of a factory, unless the Chief Inspector otherwise determines.
1. Blast furnaces.
2. Brick and tile works in which unglazed bricks or tiles are made.
3. Cement Works.
4. Chemical works.
5. Copper mills.
6. Gas works.
7. Iron and Steel mills.
8. Stone, slate and marble works.
9. The following parts of factories :
(a) Rooms used only for the storage of articles.
(b) Rooms in which the walls or ceilings consist of galvanised iron, glazed bricks, glass, slate, asbestos, bamboo or thatch.
(c) Parts in which dense steam is continuously evolved in the Process.
(d) Parts in which pitch, tar or like material is manufactured or is used to substantial extent, except in brush works.
(e) Parts of a glass factory known as glass house.
(f) Rooms in which graphite is manufactured or is used to a substantial extent in any process.
(g) Parts in which coal, coke, oxide of iron, ochre, lime or stone is crushed or ground
(h) Parts of walls, partitions, ceilings or tops of rooms which are at least 6 meters above the floor.
(i) Ceilings or tops of rooms in print works, bleach works or dye works, with the exception of finishing rooms or warehouses.
(j) Inside walls of oil mills below a height of 1.5 meters from the ground floor level.
(k) Inside walls in tanneries below a height of 1.5 meters from the ground floor level where a wet process is carried on
1. Coach and motor body works.
2. Electric generating or transforming stations.
3. Engineering works.
4. Factories in which sugar is refined or manufactured.
5. Foundries other than foundries in which brass casting is carried on.
6. Gun factories.
7. Shipbuilding works.
8. Those parts of factories where unpainted or unvarnished wood is manufactured.
Rules prescribed under sub-section (2) of section 12
The arrangements made in every factory for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to the manufacturing processes carried on therein shall be in accordance with those approved by the relevant Water and Air Pollution Boards appointed under the Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 and the Air (Prevention & Control Of Pollution) Act, 981 and other appropriate authorities.
Rules prescribed under section 13
(1) Limits of temperature and air movement :
In any factory the maximum wet-bulb temperature of air in a workroom at a height of 1.5 meters above the floor level shall not exceed 30 degrees centigrade and adequate air movement of at least 30 meters per minute shall be provided; and in relation to dry-bulb temperature, the wet-bulb temperature in the workroom at the said height shall not exceed that shown in the schedule annexed hereto, or as regards a dry-bulb reading intermediate between the two dry-bulb readings that specified in relation to the higher of these two dry-bulb readings :
(Degrees Centigrade) (Degrees Centigrade)
30 to 34 29
35 to 39 28.5
40 to 44 28
45 to 47 27.5
Provided that if the temperature measured with a thermometer inserted in a hollow globe of 15 centimeters diameter coated mat black outside and kept in the environment for not less than 20 minutes exceeds the dry-bulb temperature of the air, the temperature so recorded by he globe thermometer shall be taken in place of the dry-bulb temperature.
Provided further that when
the reading of the wet-bulb temperature
outside in the shade exceeds 27 degrees
centigrade, the value of the wet-bulb
temperature allowed in the schedule
for a given dry-bulb temperature may be correspondingly
exceeded to the same extent.
Provided further that this requirement shall not apply in respect of factories covered by section 15 and in respect of factories where the nature of work carried on involves production of excessively high temperatures referred to in clause (ii) of sub-section (1) to which workers are exposed for short periods of time not exceeding one hour followed by an interval of sufficient duration in thermal environments not exceeding those otherwise laid down in this rule.
Provided further that the Chief Inspector, having due regard to the health of the workers, may in special and exceptional circumstances, by an order in writing exempt any factory or part of a factory from the foregoing requirement, in so far as restricting the thermal conditions within the limits laid down in the schedule are concerned, to the extent that he may consider necessary subject to such conditions as he may specify.
(2) Provision of thermometers
(a) If it appears to the Inspector that in any factory, the temperature of air in a workroom is sufficiently high and is likely to exceed the limits prescribed in sub-rule (1), he may serve on the manner of the factory an order requiring him to provide sufficient number of whirling hygrometers or any other type of hygrometers and direct that the dry-bulb and wet-bulb readings in each such workroom shall be recorded at such positions as approved by the Inspector twice during each working shift by a person especially nominated for the purpose by the manager and approved by the Inspector.
If the Inspector has reason to
believe that a substantial amount of heat is added
inside the environment of a workroom by
radiation from the walls, roof or other solid
surroundings, he may serve on the manager of the factory an order
requiring him to provide one or more globe
thermo-meters referred to in the first proviso
in sub-rule (1) and further
requiring him to place the globe
thermometers at places specified by him and keep
a record of the temperatures in a suitable
(a) In every factory the amount of ventilating openings in a workroom below the eaves shall, except where mechanical means of ventilation as required by clause (b) below are provided, be of an aggregate area of not less than 15% of the floor area and so located as to afford a continued supply of fresh air
Provided that the Chief Inspector may relax the requirements regarding the amount of ventilating openings if he is satisfied that having regard to the location of the factory, orientation of the factory, orientation of the workroom, prevailing winds, roof height and the nature of manufacturing process carried on, sufficient supply of fresh air into the workroom is afforded during most part of the working time.
Provided further that this requirement shall not apply in respect of workrooms of factories :
(i) covered by section 15; or
(ii) in which temperature and humidity are controlled by refrigeration.
(b) Where in any factory owing to special circumstances such as
situation with respect to adjacent buildings and height of the ventilation openings under clause (a) of this sub-rule cannot be complied with or in the opinion of the inspector the temperature of air in a workroom is sufficiently high and is likely to exceed the limits prescribed in sub-rule (1) he may serve on the manager of the factory an order requiring him to provide additional ventilation either by means of roof ventilators or by mechanical means.
(c) The amount of fresh air supplied by mechanical means of ventilation an hour shall be equivalent to at least six times the cubic capacity of the workroom and shall be distributed evenly throughout the workroom without t dead air-pockets or undue draughts caused by high inlet velocities.
(d) in the regions where in summer (15th March-15th July) dry-bulb temperatures of outside air in the shade during most part of the day exceed 35 degrees centigrade and simultaneous wet-bulb temperatures are 25 degrees centigrade or below in the opinion of the Inspector the manufacturing process carried on in the workroom of a factory permits thermal environments with relative humidity of 50% or more, the Inspector may serve on the manager of the factory an order to have sufficient supply of outside air for ventilation cooled by passing it through water sprays either by means of unit type of evaporative air coolers (desert coolers) or, where supply of outside air is provided by mechanical means through ducts in a plenum system, by means of central air washing plants.
Rules 24 to 34 prescribed under sub-section (1) of section 15
There shall be no artificial humidification in any room of a cotton spinning or weaving factory :
the use of steam during any
period when the dry-bulb temperature
of that room exceeds 29.5 degrees centigrade; and
(b) at any time when the wet-bulb reading of the hygrometer is higher than that specified in the following schedule in relation to the dry-bulb reading of the hygrometer at that time; or as regards a dry-bulb reading intermediate between any two dry-bulb readings indicated consecutively in the schedule when the dry-bulb reading does not exceed the wet-bulb reading to the extent indicated in relation to the lower of these two dry-bulb readings :-
Dry-bulb Wet-bulb Dry-bulb Wet-bulb Dry-bulb Wet-bulb
16.0 15.0 25.5 24.5 35.0 30.5
16.5 15.5 26.0 25.0 35.5 31.0
17.0 16.0 26.5 25.5 36.0 31.0
17.5 16.0 27.0 26.0 36.5 31.5
18.0 16.5 27.5 26.0 37.0 31.5
18.5 17.0 28.0 26.5 37.5 31.5
19.0 18.0 28.5 27.0 38.0 32.0
19.5 18.5 29.0 27.0 38.5 32.0
20.0 19.0 29.5 28.0 39.0 32.0
20.5 19.5 30.0 28.0 39.5 32.5
21.0 20.0 30.5 28.5 40.0 32.5
21.5 20.5 31.0 28.5 40.5 33.0
22.0 21.0 31.5 29.0 41.0 33.0
22.5 21.0 32.0 29.0 41.5 33.0
23.0 21.5 32.5 29.0 42.0 33.0
23.5 22.0 33.0 29.5 42.5 33.0
24.0 23.0 33.5 29.5 43.0 33.5
24.5 23.5 34.0 30.0 43.5 33.5
Provided, however, that clause (b) shall not apply when the difference between the wet-bulb temperature as indicated by the hygrometer in the department concerned and the wet-bulb temperature taken with a hygrometer outside in the shade is less than 2 degrees.
In all departments of cotton spinning and weaving mills wherein artificial humidification is adopted, hygrometers shall be provided and maintained in such positions as are approved by the Inspector. The number of hygrometers shall be regulated according to the following scale :-
(a) Weaving department:
One hygrometer for departments with less than 500 looms, and one additional hygrometers for every 500 or part of in excess of 500.
(b) Other departments:
One hygrometer for each room of
less than 8500 cubic meters capacity
and one extra hygrometer for each 5670 cubic meters or part
thereof, in excess of this.
(c) One additional hygrometer shall be provided and maintained outside each cotton spinning and weaving factory wherein artificial humidification is adopted, and in a position approved by the Inspector, for taking hygrometer shade readings.
When the Inspector is satisfied that the limits of humidity allowed by the schedule to rule 23 are never exceeded, he may, for any department other than the weaving department, grant exemption from the maintenance of hygrometer. The Inspector shall record such exemption in writing.
A legible copy of the schedule to rule 23 shall be affixed near each hygrometer.
At each hygrometer maintained in accordance with rule 24, correct wet and dry-bulb temperature shall be recorded thrice daily by the manager and approved by the Inspector. The temperature shall be taken between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m., between 11 a.m. and 2 p.m. In exceptional circumstances, such additional readings be taken and between such hours, as the Inspector may specify, shall be taken. The temperatures shall be entered in a humidity register in the prescribed Form......., maintained in the factory.
At the end of each month, the persons who have taken the readings shall sign the register and certify in the register the correctness of the entries. The register shall always be available for inspection by the Inspector.
(1) Each hygrometer shall comprise of two mercurial thermometers of wet-bulb and dry-bulb of similar construction, and equal in dimensions, scale and divisions of scale. They shall be mounted on a frame with a suitable reservoir containing water.
wet-bulb shall be closely covered with a single layer of muslin,
kept wet by means of a wick attached to
it and dropping into the water in the
reservoir. The muslin covering and the wick shall be suitable
for the purpose, clean and free from grease.
(3) No part of the wet-bulb shall be within 76 millimeters from the dry-bulb or less than 25 millimeters from the surface of the water in the reservoir and the water reservoir shall be below it, on the side of it away from the dry-bulb
(4) The bulb shall be spherical and of suitable dimensions and shall be freely exposed on all sides to the air of the room.
(5) The bores of the stems shall be such that the position of the top of the mercury column shall be readily distinguishable at a distance of 60 centimeters.
(6) Each thermometer shall be graduated so that accurate readings may be taken between 10 and 50 degrees centigrade.
(7) Every degree from 10 degrees upto 50 degrees shall be clearly marked by horizontal lines on the stem, each fifth degree shall be marked by longer marks than the intermediate degrees and the temperature marked opposite each fifth degree, i.e., 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50.
(8) The marking as above shall be accurate, that is to say, at no temperature between 10 and 50 degrees, shall the indicated readings be in error by more than one ninth of a degree.
(9) A distinctive number shall be indelibly marked upon the thermometer.
(10) The accuracy of each thermometer shall be certified by the National Physical Laboratory, Delhi, or some competent authority appointed by the Chief Inspector and such certificate shall be attached to the humidity register.
Each thermometer shall be maintained at all times during the period of employment in efficient working order, so as to give accurate indications and in particular :-
(a) the wick and the muslin covering of the wet-bulb shall be renewed once a week;
(b) the reservoir shall be filled with water which shall be completely renewed once a day. The Chief Inspector may direct the use of distilled water or pure rain water in any particular mill or mills in certain localities; and
(c) no water shall be applied directly to the wick or covering during the period of employment.
If an Inspector gives notice in writing that a thermometer is not accurate, it shall not, after one month from the date of such notice, be deemed to be accurate unless and until it has been re-examined as prescribed and a fresh certificate obtained, which certificate shall be kept attached to the humidity register.
(1) No hygrometer shall be affixed to a wall, pillar, or other surface unless protected therefrom by wood or other non-conducting material atleast 12 millimeters in thickness and distant of at least 25 millimeters from the bulb of each thermometer.
(2) No hygrometer shall be fixed at a height of more than 170 centimeters from the floor to the top of thermometer stem or in the direct draughts from a fan, window, or ventilating opening.
No reading shall be taken for record on any hygrometer within 15 minutes of the renewal of water in the reservoir.
In any room in which steam pipes are used for the introduction of steam for the purpose of artificial humidification of the air the following provisions shall apply :-
(a) the diameter of such pipes shall not exceed 50 millimeters and in the case of pipes installed after 1st day of ..................., diameter shall not exceed 25 millimeters
(b) such pipes shall be as short as is reasonably practicable
(c) all hangers supporting such pipes shall be separated from the bare pipes by an efficient insulator of not less than half an inch in thickness;
(d) no uncovered jet from such pipe shall project more than 11.5 centimeters beyond the outer surface of any cover;
(e) the steam pressure shall be as low as practicable and shall not exceed 5 kilograms per square centimeter; and
(f) the pipe employed for the introduction of steam into the air in a department shall be efficiently covered with such non-conducting material, as may be approved by the Inspector in order to minimize the amount of heat radiated by them into the department.
Rules 35 to 37 prescribed under sub-section (4) of section 17
(1) The general illumination over those interior parts of a factory where persons are regularly employed shall be not less than 65 lux measures in the horizontal plane at a level of 90 centimeters above the floor:
Provided that in any such parts in which the mounting height of the light source for general illumination necessarily exceeds 7.6 meters measured from the floor or where the structure of the room or the position or construction of the fixed machinery or plant prevents the uniform attainment of this standard, the general illumination at the said level shall be not less than 22 lux and where work is actually being done the illumination shall be not less than 65 lux.
(2) The illumination over all other interior parts of the factory over which persons employed shall, when and where a person is passing, be not less than 5 lux at floor level.
(3) The standard specified in this rule shall be without prejudice to the provision of any additional illumination required to render the lighting sufficient and suitable for the nature of the work.
(1) Where any source of artificial light in the factory is less than 4.9 meters above floor level, no part of the light source or of the lighting fitting having a brightness greater than 1.55 candles per square centimeter (4.87 lamberts) shall be visible to persons whilst normally employed within 30 meters of the source, except where the angle of elevation from the eye to the source or part of the fitting as the case may be, exceeds 20 degrees.
(2) Any local light, that is to say an artificial light designed to illuminate particularly the area or part of the area of work of a single operative or small group of operatives working near each other, shall be provided a suitable shade of opaque material to prevent glare or with other effective means by which the light source is completely screened from the eyes of every person employed at a normal working place, or shall be so placed that no such person is exposed to glare therefrom.
Where the Chief Inspector is satisfied in respect of any particular factory or part thereof or in respect of any description of workroom or process that any requirement of rules 35 and 36 is inappropriate or is not reasonably practicable, he may by order in writing exempt the factory or part thereof, or description of workroom or process from such requirement to such extent and subject to such conditions as he may specify.
Rules 38 to 43 prescribed under sub-section (4) of section 18
The quantity of drinking water to be provided for the workers in every factory shall be atleast 5 litres per worker employed in the factory and such drinking water shall be readily available at all times during working hours.
The water provided for drinking shall be supplied :
(a) from the public water supply
(b) from any other source approved in writing by the Health Officer.
If drinking water is not supplied directly from taps either connected with public water supply system or any other water supply system of the factory approved by the Health Officer, it shall be kept in suitable vessels, receptacles or tanks fitted with taps and having dust proof covers, and placed on raised stands or platforms in shade and having suitable arrangement of drainage to carry away the split water. Such vessels, receptacles or tanks shall be kept clean and the water renewed at least once every day. All practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that the water is free from contamination.
(1) Drinking Water shall not be supplied from any open well or reservoir unless it is so constructed, situated, protected and maintained as to be free from the possibility of pollution by chemical, or bacterial and extraneous impurities.
(2) Where drinking water is supplied from such well or reservoir, the water in it shall be sterilized once a week or more frequently if the Inspector by written order so requires, and the date on which sterilizing is carried out shall be recorded
Provided that this requirement shall not apply to any such well or reservoir if the water therein is filtered and treated to the satisfaction of the Health Officer before it is supplied for consumption.
The Inspector may by order in writing direct the manager to obtain, at such time or at intervals as he may direct, a report from the Health Officer as to the fitness for human consumption of the water supplied to the workers, and in every case to submit to the Inspector a copy of such report as soon as it is received from the Health Officer.
In every factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed :-
(a) the drinking water supplied to the workers shall from the ........ ….. to the ............ in every year, be cooled by ice or other effective method :
Provided that if ice is placed in the drinking
water, the ice shall be clean and wholesome and shall
be obtained only from a source approved in
writing by the Health Officer;
(b) the cooled drinking water shall be supplied in every canteen, lunchroom and rest room and also at conveniently accessible points throughout the factory which for the purpose of these rules shall be called "water centers";
(c) the water centers shall be sheltered from the weather and adequately drained;
(d) the number of water centers to be provided shall be one "center" for every 150 persons employed at any one time in the factory :
Provided that in the case of a factory where the number of persons employed exceeds 500 it shall be sufficient if there is one such "center" as aforesaid for every 150 persons upto the first 500 and one for every 500 persons thereafter;
Provided further that the distance
between the place of work of any worker shall not
be more than 50 meters from the nearest water
center or any distance as may be specified by the inspector.
water center shall be maintained in a
clean and orderly condition; and
(f) the means of supply of cooled drinking water shall be either directly through taps connected to water coolers or any other system for cooling of water, or by means of vessels, receptacles or tanks fitted with taps and having dust proof covers and placed on raised stands or platforms in shade, and having suitable arrangement of drainage to carry away split water. Such vessels, receptacles or tanks shall be kept clean and the water renewed atleast once every day.
Rules 44 to 53 prescribed under sub-section (3) of section 19
Latrine accommodation shall be provided in every factory on the following scale :-
(a) where females are employed, there shall be at least on latrine for every 25 females
(b) where males are employed, there shall be at least one latrine for every 25 males
Provided that where the number of males exceeds 100, it shall be sufficient if there is one latrine for every 25 males up to the first 100, and one for every 50 thereafter.
In calculating the number of latrines required under this rule, any odd number of workers less than 25, or 50, as the case may be, shall be reckoned as 25 or 50.
Latrines, other than those connected with an efficient water borne sewage system shall, comply with the requirements of the Public Health authorities.
Every latrine shall be under cover and so partitioned off as to secure privacy, and shall have a proper door and fastenings.
Where workers of both sexes are employed, there shall be displayed outside each latrine block a notice "For Men only" or "For Women only" as the case may be, in the language understood by the majority of the workers. The notice shall also bear the figure of a man or of a woman as the case may be.
Urinal accommodation shall be provided for the use of male workers and there shall be at least one urinal of not less than 60 centimeters in length for every 50 males:
Provided that where the number of males employed exceeds 500, it shall be sufficient if there is one urinal for every 50 males upto the first 500 employed, and one for every 100 thereafter.
In calculating the
urinal accommodation required under this rule
any odd number of workers
less than 50, or 100, as the case may be, shall be reckoned as 50 or 100.
Urinals, other than those connected with an efficient water-borne sewage system, and urinals in a factory wherein more than two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed shall comply with the requirements of the Public Health authorities.
When any general system of
underground sewerage with an assured water
supply for any particular locality is provided in a
municipality, all latrines and urinals of a
factory situated in such locality
shall, if the factory is situated within 30 meters of
an existing sewer, be connected
with that sewerage system.
The walls, coilings, and partitions of every
latrine and urinal shall be white washed or colour washed and the
whitewashing or colour washing shall be repeated
at least once in every period of four months. The dates
on which the whitewashing or colour washing is carried out
shall be entered
in the prescribed register (Form ):
Provided that this rule shall not apply to latrines and urinals, the walls, ceilings or partitions of which are laid in glazed tiles or otherwise finished to provide a smooth, polished, impervious surface and that they are washed with suitable detergents and disinfectants at least once in every period of four months.
All drains carrying waste or sludge water shall be constructed in masonry or other impermeable material and shall be regularly flushed and the effluent disposed off by connecting such drains with a suitable drainage line:
Provided that where there is no such drainage line, the effluent shall be deodorized and rendered innocuous and then disposed off in a suitable manner to the satisfaction of the Health Officer.
(1) Where piped water supply
is available, sufficient number of
water taps, conveniently accessible, shall be provided
in or near such latrine accommodation.
(2) If piped water supply is not available, sufficient quantity of water shall be kept stored in suitable receptacles near the latrines.
Rules 54 to 56 prescribed under sub-section (2) of section 20
The number and location of the spittoons to be provided shall be to the satisfaction of the Inspector.
The spittoons shall be any of the following types :-
(a) a galvanized iron container with a conical funnel-shaped cover. A layer of suitable disinfectant liquid shall always be maintained in the container ;
(b) a container filled with dry, clean sand, and covered with a layer of bleaching powder; or
(c) any other type approved by the Chief Inspector.
The spittoon mentioned in clause (a) of rule 55 shall be emptied, cleaned and disinfected at least once every day; and the spittoon mentioned in clause (b) of rule 55 shall be cleaned by scrapping out the top layer of sand as often as necessary or at least once every day.