Manufacture of pottery
1. Savings - These provisions shall not apply to a factory in which any of the following articles, but no other pottery, are made :-
(a) unglazed or salt glazed bricks and tiles; and
(b) architectural terra-cotta made from plastic clay and either unglazed or glazed with a leadless glaze only.
2. Definitions - For the purposes of this schedule -
(a) “pottery” includes earthenware, stoneware, porcelain, china tiles, and any other articles made from such clay or from a mixture containing clay and other materials such as quartz, flint, feldspar, and gypsum;
(b) “efficient exhaust draught” means localised ventilation effected by mechanical or other means for removal of dust or fume so as to prevent it from escaping into air of any place in which work is carried on. No draught shall be deemed efficient which fails to remove effectively dust or fume generated at the point where dust or fume originates;
(c) “fettling” includes scalloping, towing, sand papering, sand sticking, brushing or any other process of cleaning of potteryware in which dust is given off;
(d) “leadless glaze”means a glaze which does not contain more than one per cent of its dry weight, of a lead compound calculated as lead monoxide;
(e) “low solubility glaze” means a glaze which does not yield to dilute hydrochloric acid more than five per cent of its dry weight, of a soluble lead compound calculated as lead monoxide when determined in the manner described below :
A weighed quantity of the material which has been dried at 100 degrees centigrade and thoroughly mixed shall be continuously shaken for one hour at the common temperature with 1000 times its weight of an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid containing 0.25 per cent by weight of hydrogen chloride. This solution shall thereafter be allowed to stand for one hour and then filtered. The lead salt contained in the clear filtrate shall then be precipitated as lead sulphide and weighed as lead sulphide;
(f) sound or powdered flint or quartz” does not include natural sands; and
(g) “potter’s shop includes all places where pottery is formed by pressing or by any other process and all places where shaping, fettling or other treatment of pottery articles prior to placing for the biscuit fire is carried on.
3. Efficient exhaust draught - The following processes shall not be carried on without the use of an efficient exhaust draught -
(a) all processes involving the manipulation or use of a dry and unfritted lead compound;
(b) fettling operations of any kind, whether on greenware or biscuit, provided that this shall not apply to the wet fettling, and to the occasional finishing of pottery articles without the aid of mechanical power;
(c) sifting of clay dust or any other material for making tiles or other articles or other articles by pressure, except where –
(i) this is done in an machine so enclosed as to effectually prevent the escape of dust; or
(ii) the material to be shifted is so damp that no dust can be given off;
(d) pressing of tiles from clay dust, an exhaust opening being connected with each press, and pressing from clay dust of articles other than tiles, unless the material is so damp that no dust is given off;
(e) fettling of tiles made from clay dust by pressure, except where the fettling is done wholly on, or with, damp material, and fettling of other articles made from clay dust, unless the material is so damp that no dust is given off;
(f) process of loading and unloading of saggars where handling and manipulation of ground and powdered flint, quartz, aluminia or other materials are involved;
(g) brushing of earthenware biscuit, unless the process is carried on in a room provided with efficient general mechanical ventilation or other ventilation which is certified by the Inspector of Factories as adequate having regard to all the circumstances of the case;
(h) fettling of biscuitware which has been fired in powdered flint or quartz except where this is done in machines so enclosed as to effectually prevent the escape of dust;
(i) where cleaning after the application of glaze by dipping or other process;
(j) crushing and dry grinding of materials for pottery bodies and saggars, unless carried on in machines so enclosed as to effectively prevent the escape of dust or is so damp that no dust can be given off;
(k) sieving or manipulation of powdered flint, quartz, clay grog or mixture of these materials unless it is so damp that no dust can be given off;
(l) grinding of tiles on a power driven wheel unless an efficient water spray is used on the wheel;
(m) lifting and conveying of materials by elevators and conveyors unless they are effectively enclosed and so arranged as to prevent escape of dust into the air in or near to any place in which persons are employed;
(n) preparation or weighing out of flow material, lawning of dry colours, colour dusting and colour blowing;
(o) mould making unless the bins or similar receptacles used for holding plaster of paris are provided with suitable covers; and
(p) manipulation of calcined material unless the material has been made and remains so wet that no dust is given off.
4. Separation of processes - Each of the following processes shall be carried on in such a manner and under such conditions as to secure effectual separation from one another, and from other wet processes:-
(a) crushing and dry grinding or sieving of materials, fettling, pressing of tiles, drying of clay and greenware, loading and unloading of saggars; and
(b) all processes involving the use of a dry lead compound.
5. Prohibition on use of glaze - No glaze which is not a leadless glaze or a low solubility glaze shall be used in a factory in which pottery is manufactured.
6. Prohibition relating to women and young persons.- No woman or young person shall be employed or permitted to work in any of the operations specified in paragraph 4, or at any place where such operations are carried on.
7. Provision of screen to potter’s wheel.- The potter’s wheel (Jolly and Jigger) shall be provided with screens or so constructed as to prevent clay scrapings being thrown off beyond the wheel.
8. Control of dust during cleaning –
(1) All practical measures shall be taken by damping or otherwise to prevent dust arising during cleaning of floors.
(2) Damp saw-dust or other suitable material shall be used to render the moist method effective in preventing dust rising into the air during the cleaning process which shall be carried out after work has ceased.
9. Floor of certain workrooms - The floors of potter’s shops, slip houses, dipping houses and ware cleaning rooms shall be hard, smooth and impervious and shall be thoroughly cleaned daily by an adult male using a moist method.
10. Protective equipment -
(1) The occupier shall provide and maintain suitable overalls and hand coverings for all persons employed in process included under paragraph 3.
(2) The occupier shall provide and maintain suitable aprons of a of a waterproof or similar material, which can be sponged daily, for the use of the dippers, dippers assistants, throwers, jolly workers, casters, mould makers and filter press and pug mill workers.
(3) Aprons provided in pursuance of paragraph 10(2) shall be thoroughly cleaned daily by the wearers by sponging or other wet process. All overalls and head coverings shall be washed, cleaned and mended at least once a week, and this washing, cleaning or mending shall be provided for by the occupier.
(4) No person shall be allowed to work in emptying sacks of dust materials, weighing out and mixing of dusty materials and charging of ball mills and plungers without wearing a suitable and efficient dust respirator.
11. Washing facilities -
(1) The occupier shall provide and maintain, in a clean state and in good repair for the use of all persons employed in any of the processes specified in paragraph 3 -
(a) a wash place under cover, with either –
(i) a trough with a smooth impervious surface fitted with a waste pipe without plug, and of sufficient length to allow of at least 60 centimetres for every five such persons employed at any one time, and having a constant supply of clean water from taps or jets above the trough at intervals of not more than 60 centimetres; or
(ii) at least one tap or stand pipe for every five such persons employed at any one time, and having a constant supply of clean water, the tap or stand pipe being spaced not less than 120 centimetres apart; and
(b) a sufficient supply of clean towels made of suitable materials changed daily, with a sufficient supply of soap and nail brushes.
12. Time allowed for washing - Before each meal and before the end of the day’s work, at least ten minutes, in addition to the regular meal times, shall be allowed for washing to each person employed in any of the processes mentioned in paragraph 3.
13. Messroom -
(1) There shall be provided and maintained for use of all persons remaining within the premises during the rest intervals, a suitable messroom providing accommodation of 0.93 square meter per head and furnished with -
(a) a sufficient number of tables and chairs or benches with back rest;
(b) arrangements for washing utensils;
(c) adequate means for warming food; and
(d) adequate quantity of drinking water.
(2) The room shall be adequately ventilated by the circulation of fresh air and placed under the charge of a responsible person and shall be kept clean.
14. Food, drinks, etc. prohibited in workrooms - No food, drink, pan and supari or tobacco shall be brought into, or consumed by any worker in any workroom in which any of the processes mentioned in paragraph 3 are carried on and no person shall remain in any such room during intervals for meals or rest.
15. Cloakrooms etc - There shall be provided and maintained for the use of all persons employed in any of the processes mentioned in paragraph 3.
(a) a cloakroom for clothing put off during working hours and such accommodation shall be separate from any messroom; and
(b) separate and suitable arrangements for the storage of protective equipment provided under paragraph 10.
16. Medical facilities and records of examinations and tests -
(1) The occupier of every factory in which manufacture of pottery is carried on, shall –
(a) employ a qualified medical practitioner for medical surveillance of the workers employed therein whose employment shall be subject to the approval of the Chief Inspector of Factories; and
(b) provide to the said medical practitioner all the necessary facilities for the purpose referred to in clause (a).
(2) The record of medical examinations and appropriate tests carried out by the said medical practitioner shall be maintained in separate register approved by the Chief Inspector of Factories, which shall be kept readily available for inspection by the Inspector.
17. Medical examination by Certifying Surgeon -
(1) Every worker employed in any process mentioned under paragraph 3, shall be examined by a Certifying Surgeon within 15 days of his first employment. Such examination shall include tests for lead in urine and blood, ALA in urine, haemoglobin content, stippling of cells and. No worker shall be allowed to work after 15 days of his first employment in the factory unless certified fit for such employment by the Certifying Surgeon.
(2) All persons employed in any of the processes included under sub- paragraphs 3(a) and 3(n) shall be examined by a Certifying Surgeon once in every 3 calendar months. Those employed in any other processes mentioned in the remaining sub-paragraphs of paragraph 3 shall be examined by a Certifying Surgeon one in every twelve calendar months. Such examinations in respect of all the workers shall include all the tests as specified in sub-paragraph (1) except chest X-ray which will be once in 3 years.
(3) The Certifying Surgeon after examining a worker, shall issue a Certificate of Fitness in Form 23. The record of examination and re-examinations carried out shall be entered in the Certificate and the Certificate shall be kept in the custody of the manager of the factory. The record of each examination carried out under sub-paragraphs (1) and (2), including the nature and the results of the tests, shall also be entered by the Certifying Surgeon in a health register in Form 24.
(4) The Certificate of Fitness and the health register shall be kept readily available for inspection by the Inspector.
(5) If at any time the Certifying Surgeon is of the opinion that a worker is no longer fit for employment in the said process on the ground that continuance therein would involve special danger to the health of the worker he shall make a record of his findings in the said Certificate and the health register. The entry of his findings in these documents should also include the period for which he considers that the said person is unfit for work in the said processes. The person so suspended from the process shall be provided with alternate placement facilities unless he fully is incapacitated in the opinion of the Certifying Surgeon, in which case the person affected shall be suitably rehabilitated.
(6) No person who has been found unfit to work as said in sub-paragraph (5) above shall be re-employed or permitted to work in the said processes unless the Certifying Surgeon, after further examination, again certifies him fit for employment in those processes.
18. Exemption - If in respect of any factory the Chief Inspector of Factories is satisfied that all or any of the provisions of this schedule are not necessary for the protection of the persons employed in such factory, he may by a certificate in writing exempt such factory from all or any of such provisions, subject to such conditions as he may specify therein. Such certificate may at any time be revoked by the Chief Inspector without assigning any reasons.