Schedule – XI

Manufacture of pottery


1.                   Savings - These provisions shall not apply to a factory in which any of the following articles, but no other pottery, are made :-


(a)                unglazed or salt glazed bricks and tiles; and

(b)                architectural terra-cotta made from plastic clay and either unglazed or glazed with a leadless glaze only.


2.         Definitions - For the purposes of this schedule -


(a)                “pottery”  includes  earthenware, stoneware, porcelain, china tiles, and any other articles made from such clay or from a mixture containing  clay and other materials  such  as  quartz, flint, feldspar, and gypsum;


(b)                “efficient exhaust draught” means localised ventilation effected by mechanical or other means for removal of dust or fume so as to prevent  it  from escaping into air of any place in which work is carried on.   No  draught  shall  be  deemed  efficient  which  fails to remove effectively  dust or fume generated at the point where  dust  or fume originates;


(c)                “fettling”  includes  scalloping, towing, sand papering, sand sticking, brushing or any other  process  of  cleaning  of potteryware in which dust is given off;


(d)                “leadless glaze”means a glaze which does not contain more than one per cent of its dry weight, of a lead compound calculated as lead monoxide;


(e)                “low  solubility  glaze” means a glaze which does not yield to dilute hydrochloric acid more than five per cent of its dry weight, of a soluble lead compound calculated as lead monoxide when determined in the manner described below :


A weighed quantity of the material which has been dried at 100 degrees centigrade and thoroughly mixed shall be continuously shaken for one hour at the common temperature with 1000 times its weight of an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid containing 0.25 per cent by weight of hydrogen chloride.   This solution shall thereafter be allowed to stand for one hour and then filtered.  The lead salt contained in the clear filtrate shall then be precipitated as lead sulphide and weighed as  lead sulphide;


(f)                  sound  or powdered flint or quartz” does not  include  natural sands; and


(g)                “potter’s  shop includes all places where pottery is  formed  by  pressing  or by any other process and all places where  shaping, fettling or other treatment of pottery articles prior to placing  for the biscuit fire is carried on.



 3.        Efficient  exhaust  draught - The following processes shall  not  be  carried on without the use of an efficient exhaust draught -


(a)                 all  processes  involving the manipulation or use of a  dry  and unfritted lead compound;


(b)                 fettling  operations  of  any  kind,  whether  on  greenware  or biscuit,  provided  that  this   shall  not  apply  to  the  wet fettling,  and to the occasional finishing of  pottery  articles without the aid of mechanical power;


(c)                 sifting  of clay dust or any other material for making tiles  or other articles or other articles by pressure, except where –


(i)          this is done in an machine so enclosed as  to  effectually prevent the escape of dust; or

(ii)               the  material to be shifted is so damp that no dust  can  be  given off;


(d)                 pressing  of  tiles  from clay dust, an  exhaust  opening  being connected  with  each  press, and pressing  from  clay  dust  of articles  other than tiles, unless the material is so damp  that  no dust is given off;


(e)                 fettling of tiles made from clay dust by pressure, except where the  fettling  is done wholly on, or with,  damp  material,  and fettling of  other articles made from clay  dust,  unless  the material is so damp that no dust is given off;


(f)                   process  of loading and unloading of saggars where handling  and  manipulation  of ground and powdered flint, quartz, aluminia  or other materials are involved;


(g)                 brushing  of earthenware biscuit, unless the process is  carried  on  in  a  room  provided  with  efficient  general mechanical ventilation or  other  ventilation which is  certified  by  the Inspector  of  Factories as adequate having regard  to  all  the circumstances of the case;


(h)                 fettling  of biscuitware which has been fired in powdered  flint or  quartz except where this is done in machines so enclosed  as to effectually prevent the escape of dust;


(i)                   where  cleaning  after the application of glaze  by  dipping  or  other process;


(j)                    crushing  and dry grinding of materials for pottery  bodies and saggars,  unless  carried  on  in machines  so  enclosed  as  to effectively  prevent  the escape of dust or is so damp  that  no dust can be given off;


(k)                 sieving or manipulation of powdered flint, quartz, clay grog  or  mixture of these materials unless it is so damp that no dust can be given off;


(l)                    grinding  of tiles on a power driven wheel unless  an  efficient water spray is used on the wheel;


(m)               lifting  and conveying of materials by elevators  and  conveyors unless  they  are  effectively enclosed and so  arranged  as  to prevent  escape of dust into the air in or near to any place in which persons are employed;


(n)                 preparation  or  weighing out of flow material, lawning  of  dry colours, colour dusting and colour blowing;


(o)                 mould  making  unless the bins or similar receptacles  used  for holding plaster of paris are provided with suitable covers; and


(p)                 manipulation  of calcined material unless the material has  been made and remains so wet that no dust is given off.


4.         Separation  of processes - Each of the following processes shall  be carried  on in such a manner and under such conditions as to  secure effectual   separation  from  one  another,  and  from other   wet processes:-


(a)   crushing  and  dry grinding or sieving of  materials,  fettling, pressing  of  tiles, drying of clay and greenware,  loading  and unloading of saggars; and


(b)   all processes involving the use of a dry lead compound.


5.                   Prohibition on use of glaze - No glaze which is not a leadless glaze or  a  low  solubility glaze shall be used in a factory in which pottery is manufactured.


6.                   Prohibition  relating to women and young persons.- No woman or young person shall be employed or permitted to work  in  any  of  the operations  specified  in paragraph 4, or at any  place  where  such operations are carried on.


7.                   Provision  of screen to potter’s wheel.- The potter’s  wheel  (Jolly and  Jigger) shall be provided with screens or so constructed as  to  prevent clay scrapings being thrown off beyond the wheel.


8.                   Control of dust during cleaning –



(1)                All practical measures shall be taken by damping or otherwise to prevent dust arising during cleaning of floors.


(2)                Damp saw-dust or other suitable material shall be used to render the moist method effective in preventing dust rising into  the air during the cleaning process which shall be carried out after work has ceased.


9.                   Floor  of  certain workrooms - The floors of  potter’s  shops,  slip houses, dipping houses and ware cleaning rooms shall be hard, smooth and  impervious  and shall be thoroughly cleaned daily by  an  adult male using a moist method.


10.              Protective equipment -


(1)                The occupier shall provide and maintain suitable overalls and hand coverings for all persons employed in  process  included under paragraph 3.


(2)                The  occupier  shall provide and maintain suitable aprons  of  a of a waterproof or similar material, which can be sponged daily, for the use of the dippers, dippers assistants, throwers,  jolly workers,  casters,  mould makers and filter press and  pug  mill workers.


(3)                Aprons  provided  in  pursuance  of  paragraph  10(2)  shall  be  thoroughly  cleaned  daily  by the wearers  by sponging or other wet process.  All overalls and head  coverings shall  be washed, cleaned and mended at least once a  week,  and this  washing, cleaning or mending shall be provided for by  the occupier.


(4)                No  person  shall be allowed to work in emptying sacks  of  dust materials, weighing out and mixing  of  dusty materials  and charging of ball mills and plungers without wearing a suitable and efficient dust respirator.


11.        Washing facilities -


(1)        The occupier shall provide and maintain, in a clean state and in good  repair for the use of all persons employed in any  of  the  processes specified in paragraph 3 -


(a)                a wash place under cover, with either –


(i)         a trough with a smooth impervious surface fitted with a waste pipe without plug, and of sufficient length to allow of at  least  60 centimetres for every  five  such  persons employed  at any one time, and having a constant  supply  of clean water from taps or jets above the trough at intervals of not more than 60 centimetres; or


(ii)        at least one tap or stand pipe for every five such persons employed at any one time, and having a constant supply of clean water, the tap or stand pipe being spaced not less than 120 centimetres apart; and


(b)        a sufficient supply of clean towels made of suitable  materials changed  daily,  with  a  sufficient supply  of  soap  and nail brushes.



12.       Time allowed for washing - Before each meal and before the  end  of  the  day’s  work, at least ten minutes, in addition to the regular meal times, shall be allowed for washing to each person employed  in any of the processes mentioned in paragraph 3.


13.       Messroom -


(1)        There shall be provided and maintained for use of  all persons remaining  within  the  premises during the rest intervals, a suitable messroom providing accommodation of 0.93 square  meter per head and furnished with  -


(a)           a sufficient number of tables and chairs or benches  with  back rest;


(b)           arrangements for washing utensils;


(c)            adequate means for warming food; and


(d)           adequate quantity of drinking water.


(2)        The  room shall be adequately ventilated by the circulation  of  fresh  air and placed under the charge of a  responsible  person and shall be kept clean.


14.       Food, drinks, etc. prohibited in workrooms - No food, drink, pan and supari or tobacco shall be brought into, or consumed by any  worker in any workroom in which any of the processes mentioned in paragraph 3 are carried on and no person shall remain in any such room  during intervals for meals or rest.


15.       Cloakrooms etc - There shall be provided and maintained for the  use of  all  persons  employed  in any of  the  processes  mentioned  in paragraph 3.


(a)                 a  cloakroom for clothing put off during working hours and  such  accommodation shall be separate from any messroom; and


(b)                 separate  and  suitable  arrangements  for  the   storage   of protective equipment provided under paragraph 10.


16.       Medical  facilities and records of examinations and tests -


(1)                The occupier  of  every  factory  in which  manufacture of pottery is carried on, shall –


 (a)        employ a  qualified  medical   practitioner   for medical  surveillance  of the workers employed therein  whose  employment shall  be  subject  to the approval of the  Chief  Inspector of Factories; and


(b)         provide to the said medical practitioner all the necessary facilities for the purpose referred to in clause (a).


(2)        The record of medical examinations and appropriate tests carried  out  by  the said medical practitioner shall  be  maintained  in  separate register approved by the Chief Inspector of  Factories, which  shall  be kept readily available for  inspection  by  the  Inspector.


17.       Medical  examination  by  Certifying  Surgeon -


(1)                Every  worker employed in any process mentioned under paragraph 3, shall be examined by  a Certifying Surgeon within 15 days of his first employment.  Such  examination shall include tests for lead in urine and  blood, ALA  in  urine,  haemoglobin content,  stippling  of  cells  and.  No worker shall be allowed to work  after  15 days of his first employment in the factory unless certified fit  for such employment by the Certifying Surgeon.


(2)                All persons employed in any of the processes included under sub- paragraphs 3(a) and  3(n) shall be examined  by a Certifying Surgeon once in every 3 calendar months. Those employed in  any  other  processes  mentioned in the remaining  sub-paragraphs  of paragraph 3 shall be examined by a Certifying Surgeon  one  in every  twelve calendar months.  Such examinations in respect of all the workers  shall include all the tests as specified  in  sub-paragraph (1) except chest X-ray which will be once in 3 years.


(3)                The Certifying Surgeon after examining a worker, shall issue  a Certificate of Fitness in Form 23.  The record  of  examination and  re-examinations  carried  out  shall  be entered in the Certificate and the Certificate shall be kept in the custody  of  the  manager  of the factory.  The record  of  each  examination  carried  out  under sub-paragraphs (1) and  (2),  including  the nature  and the results of the tests, shall also be  entered  by the Certifying Surgeon in a health register in Form 24.


(4)                The Certificate of Fitness and the health register shall be  kept  readily available for inspection by the Inspector.


(5)                If  at any time the Certifying Surgeon is of the opinion that  a  worker  is no longer fit for employment in the said  process  on the ground that continuance therein would involve special danger to  the  health  of the worker he shall make  a  record  of  his findings  in the said Certificate and the health register.  The entry of his findings in these documents should also include the period for which he considers that the said person is unfit  for work  in the said processes.  The person so suspended  from  the process shall be provided with alternate  placement  facilities  unless he fully is incapacitated in the opinion of the Certifying Surgeon,  in  which case the person affected shall  be  suitably rehabilitated.


(6)                No  person  who  has been found unfit to work as  said  in  sub-paragraph (5) above shall be re-employed or permitted to work in the said processes unless the Certifying Surgeon, after  further examination,  again  certifies him fit for employment in those processes.


18.       Exemption -  If  in respect of any factory  the Chief  Inspector  of Factories  is  satisfied that all or any of the provisions  of  this schedule  are  not  necessary  for the  protection  of  the  persons employed in such factory, he may by a certificate in writing exempt such  factory  from all or any of such provisions, subject  to  such conditions  as he may specify therein.  Such certificate may at  any  time be revoked by the Chief Inspector without assigning any reasons.