Schedule – XII

Chemical Works




1.                   Application -  This  schedule  shall apply to  all  manufacture  and processes incidental thereto carried on in chemical works.


2.                   Definitions - For the purpose of this schedule –


(a)                “chemical works” means any factory or such parts of any  factory as are listed in appendix `A’ to this schedule;


(b)                “efficient exhaust draught” means localised ventilation effected by  mechanical or other means for the removal of  gas,  vapour,  fume  or  dust to prevent it from escaping into the air  of  any place in which work is carried on;


(c)                 “bleaching  powder” means the bleaching powder  commonly  called chloride of lime;


(d)                “chlorate” means chlorate or perchlorate;


(e)                “caustic” means hydroxide of potassium or sodium;


(f)                   “chrome process” means the manufacture of chromate or bichromate of  potassium or sodium, OT the manipulation, movement or  other treatment of these substances;


(g)                “nitro  or  amino process” means the manufacture  of  nitro  or amino  derivatives of phenol and of benzene or  its  homologues, and  the  making  of explosives with the use  of  any  of  these substances;


(h)                 the  term `permit to work’ system means the compliance with  the procedures laid down under para 20 of Part II;


(i)                   “toxic substances” means all those substances which when  they  enter into  the  human  body,  through  inhalation or ingestion or absorption through skin, in sufficient quantities cause fatality or exert serious affliction of  health,  or  chronic  harmful effects  on  the  health of persons exposed to  it  due  to  its inherent chemical or biological  effects.   In  respect of substances  whose TLV is specified in Rule 123-A, exceeding  the concentration specified therein would make the substance toxic;


(j)                   “emergency”  means  a  situation  or  condition  leading  to  a  circumstance or set of circumstances in which there is danger to the life or health of persons or which could result in big  fire or explosion or pollution to the work and outside  environment, affecting  the  workers or neighbourhood in a serious  manner, demanding immediate action;


(k)                 “dangerous chemical reactions” means high speed reactions,  runaway reactions, delayed reactions, etc. and are characterised  by evolution of large quantities of heat, intense release of  toxic or flammable gases or vapours, sudden pressure build-up etc.;


(l)                   “manipulation” means mixing, blending, filling, emptying, grinding, sieving, drying, packing, sweeping,  handling,  using, etc.;


(m)              “approved personal protective equipment” means items of personal protective equipment conforming  to  the  relevant ISI specifications  or  in the absence of  it,  personal  protective equipment approved by the Chief Inspector of Factories;


(n)                 “appropriate personal protective equipment” means that when the protective equipment  is used by the worker, he shall  have  no risk to his life or health or body; and


(o)                “confined  space” means any space by reason of its  construction  as well as in relation to the nature of the work carried therein and where hazards to the persons entering into or working inside exist or are likely to develop during working.



PART II General Requirements


Applying to all the works in Appendix `A’


1.                   Housekeeping –


(1)                 Any spillage  of materials shall be cleaned up  before  further processing.

(2)                 Floors,  platforms,  stairways, passages and gangways  shall  be free of any obstructions.

(3)                 There shall be provided easy means of access to all parts of the  parts of the plant to facilitate cleaning.


2.         Improper  use  of  chemicals - No chemicals or solvents or empty containers containing chemicals or solvents shall be permitted to be used by workers for any purpose other than in the processes for which they are supplied.


3.         Prohibition  on the use of food, etc. - No food, drink, tobacco,  pan or any edible item shall be stored or heated or consumed on or  near any part of the plant or equipment.


4.         Cautionary Notices and Instructions -


(1)                Cautionary  notices in a language understood by the majority  of workers shall be prominently displayed in all  hazardous  areas  drawing  the  attention  of all workers  about  the  hazards  to health, hazards involving fire and explosion and any other hazard such  as consequences of testing of material or substances  used in the process or using any contaminated container for  drinking or  eating, to which the workers’ attention should be drawn  for  ensuring their safety and health.


(2)                In addition to the above cautionary notice, arrangement shall be made to instruct  and  educate all the workers including illiterate workers about the hazards in the process including the specific hazards to which they may be exposed to,  in  the normal  course of their work.  Such instructions and education should also deal with the hazards involved in unauthorised and unsafe practices including the properties of substances used  in the  process  under normal  conditions  as  well  as abnormal conditions  and the precautions to be observed against each  and  every hazard.  Further, an undertaking from the workers shall be obtained within 1 month of their employment and for old workers employed,  within one month of coming into  operation  of  the  rules, to  the effect that they have read the contents of  the cautionary notices and instructions, understood them and  would abide by them.  The training and instructions to all workers and all supervisory personnel shall include the significance of different types of symbols and colours used on the labels  stuck  or painted on the various types of containers and pipe lines.


5.         Evaluation  and provision of safeguards before the  commencement  of process -


(1)   Before commencing any process or any experimental work, or  any  new  manufacture covered under Appendix `A’, the occupier  shall take all possible steps to ascertain definitely all the  hazards involved  both  from  the actual  operations  and  the  chemical reactions  including  the  dangerous  chemical  reactions.   The properties  of the raw materials used, the final products to be made and any by-products derived during manufacture, shall be carefully studied and provisions shall be made for dealing with any hazards including effects on  workers, which may occur during manufacture.


(2)   Information in writing giving details of  the process,  its  hazards  and  the steps taken or proposed to be taken  from  the design  stage  to disposal stage for ensuring the safety  as  in sub-para (1) above should be sent to the Chief Inspector at  the earliest  but  in no case less than 15  days  before  commencing manufacture, handling, or storage of any of items covered  under Appendix  `A’, whether on experimental basis, or as pilot  plant or as trial production, or as large scale manufacture.


(3)   The  design, construction, installation,  operation,  maintenance and  disposal of the buildings, plant and facilities shall take into consideration effective safeguards against all the  safety  and health hazards so evaluated.


(4)    The requirements under the sub-para (1) to (3) shall not act  in  lieu  of or in derogation to, any other provisions contained  in any Act governing the work.


6.                   Authorised  entry -  Authorised persons only shall be  permitted  to enter  any  section  of the factory or  plant  where  any  dangerous  operations  or  processes are being carried on  or  where  dangerous  chemical reactions are taking place or where hazardous chemicals are stored.


7.                   Examination of instruments and safety devices -


(1)                 All instruments and safety devices used in the process shall  be tested before taking into use and after carrying out any  repair to  them  and examined once in a month, by a  competent  person. Records of such tests and examinations shall be maintained in  a register.


(2)   All instruments and safety devices used in the process shall  be operated  daily  or as often as it is necessary, to  ensure  its effective and efficient working at all times.


8.         Electrical installations - All electrical installations used in  the process covered in Appendix `A’ shall be of an appropriate type to ensure safety against the hazard prevalent in that area such  as suitability  against  dust, dampness, corrosion, flammability  and  explosiuity etc. and shall confirm to the relevant ISI specifications governing their construction and use for that area.


9.         Handling and storage of chemicals -


(1)          The containers for handling and storage of chemicals shall be of adequate strength taking into consideration the hazardous nature of  the contents.  They shall also be provided  with  adequate labelling  and colour coding arrangements to enable identification  of the containers and their contents indicating the  hazards and safe handling methods and shall conform to  the  respective  ISI standards.  The instructions given in the label shall be strictly adhered to.  Damaged  containers shall be handled only  under  supervision  of  a  knowledgeable and  responsible person and spillage shall be rendered innocuous in a  safe manner using appropriate means.


(2)          The arrangements for the storage of chemicals including charging of chemicals in reaction vessels and containers shall be such as  to  prevent any risk of fire or explosion or formation of  toxic concentration  of substances above the limits specified in  Rule 128.


(3)          Without prejudice to the generality of the requirements in  sub- para (2) above, the arrangements shall have suitable ventilation facilities and shall enable the maintenance of safe  levels  in vessels and containers. Such arrangements shall also take into consideration, the type of flooring and the capacity of flooring  and  the compatibility requirements of substances  with  other chemicals stored nearby.


(4)          (a)        Storage of chemicals and intermediate products, which are highly unstable or reactive or explosive shall be limited to  the quantities required for two months use.


(b)        Whenever  the quantities laid down in the above clause(a) are to be exceeded, the permission of the  Chief  Inspector  shall be obtained.


(c)                Notwithstanding  anything contained in clause (a) and (b) above,  the  Chief  Inspector of Factories  may  direct any factory carrying out processes covered in Appendix  `A’  to  further  limit  the  storage  of  hazardous  substances  to  quantities less than two months on considerations of safety.


(d)                Standby arrangements equal to the biggest container shall always  be  available to transfer the toxic substances quickly into  the  standby  storage facility if any defect develops in any  of  the container resulting in the release of toxic substances.


(e)                Any  storage  facility constructed using  non-metallic material  such as Fibreglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP), all glass  vessels etc., shall have adequate strength to withstand the stress,  if any, exerted  by the contents and shall be  properly  anchored. Working  platforms, access ladders, pipelines etc used  in  such storage facility shall not have any support on the structure of  the storage facility and shall be independently supported.


10.      Facility  for  isolation -  The plant and equipment shall be so constructed and maintained as to enable quick isolation of plant or part  of plant or equipment, with appropriate indication.  One copy of the layout plan indicating the isolation facilities shall always be available with the security personnel, the maintenance and the health and safety personnel and these isolation facilities shall  be checked for its effectiveness once in a month.


11.        Personal protective equipment -


(1)                  All  workers exposed to the hazards in the processes covered by this Schedule shall be provided with appropriate and approved type of personal protective equipment. Such equipment shall  be in a clean, sterile and hygienic condition before issue.


(2)                  The occupier shall arrange to inform, educate and supervise all  the  workers in the use of personal protective  equipment  while carrying out the job.


(3)                  As regards any doubt regarding  the  appropriateness  of  any personal  protective  equipment, the decision  of  the   Chief Inspector will be final.


12.       Alarm Systems -


(1)                Suitable and effective alarm systems giving audible and visible indications,  shall be installed at the control room as well  as in all strategic locations where process control arrangements are available  so as to enable corrective action to be  taken before the operational parameters exceed the predetermined safe levels  or lead to conditions conducive for an outbreak of  fire or  explosion  to occur.  Such alarm systems  shall  be checked daily  and  tested  every  month at least  once  to  ensure  its performance efficiency at all times.


(2)                The  Chief Inspector of Factories may direct such system  to  be installed  in case of plants or processes where toxic  materials are  being used and spillage or leakage of which may cause  wide spread poisoning in or around the plant.


13.        Control of escape of substances into the work atmosphere -


(1)                Effective  arrangements  such  as, enclosure,  or  by  pass, or efficient  exhaust  draught, maintenance  of  negative  pressure etc.,  shall  be provided in all  plants,  containers,  vessels, sewers,  drains, flues, ducts, culverts, and buried  pipes  and equipment, to control the escape and spread or substances  which are likely to give rise to fire or explosion or toxic  hazards during normal working and in the event of accident or emergency.


(2)                In  the  event of the failure of the  arrangements  for  control resulting in the escape of substances in the  work  atmosphere  immediate steps shall be taken to control the process in such  a  manner, that further escape is brought down to the safe level.


(3)                The substances that would have escaped into the work  atmosphere  before taking immediate steps as required in sub-para (2), shall  be rendered innocuous by diluting with air or water or any other suitable agent or by suitably treating the substances.


14.       Control  of dangerous chemical reactions - Suitable provision,  such as automatic and or remote control arrangements, shall be made  for controlling  the effects of `dangerous chemical reactions’.  In  the event of failure of control arrangements automatic flooding or blanketing or other effective  arrangements  shall  come  into operation.


15.      Testing, examination and repair of plant & equipment -


(1)        All parts of plant, equipment and machinery used in the  process which  in the likely event of their failure may give rise to  an emergent situation shall be tested by a competent person  before  commencing  process and retested at an interval of two years or after carrying out repairs to it. The competent person shall identify  the  parts of  the plant, equipment  and  machinery required to be tested as aforesaid and evolve a suitable testing procedures.  In carrying out the test mentioned above in respect  of  pressure vessels  or  reaction  vessels   the   following  precautions shall be observed, namely –


(a)                 before the test is carried out, each vessel shall be  thoroughly cleaned and examined externally, and as  far  as  practicable, internally  also  for  surface defects,  corrosion  and  foreign matters.  During the process of cleaning and removal of  sludge, if  any,  all  due precautions shall be taken  against  fire  or explosion,  if such sludge is of pyropheric nature  or  contains  spontaneously combustible chemicals;


(b)                 as  soon  as  the  test  is  completed,  the  vessel  shall be thoroughly dried internally and shall be clearly  stamped  with   the marks and figures indicating the person by whom testing  has been done, and the date of test; and


(c)                 any  vessel which fails to pass the test or which for any  other reason  is found  to be unsafe for use shall  be  destroyed  or rendered unusable under intimation to the Chief Inspector.


(3)                All  parts of plant, equipment, machinery which is the likely event of  failure may  give rise to an emergent  situation  shall  be examined once in a month by the competent person.


(4)                records of testing and examination referred to in paragraphs (1) and  (2) shall be maintained as long as that part of the  plant, equipment and machinery are in use.


(5)                All repair work including alteration, modification and  addition to be carried out to the plant, equipment and machinery shall be done  under  the supervision of a responsible person  who  shall evolve a procedure to ensure safety and health of persons doing  the work.  When repairs or modification is done on pipelines, and  joints are required to be welded, butt welding of joints shall be preferred.  Wherever necessary, the responsible  person   shall  regulate  the aforesaid work through a  `Permit  to  work   system’.


16.       Staging -


(1)                All staging that is erected for the purpose of maintenance  work  or  repair work or for work connected with entry  into  confined  spaces and used in the processes included in Appendix `A’, shall be stable, rigid and constructed out of substantial material of adequate strength.  Such staging shall conform to the respective Indian Standard specifications.


(2)                Staging shall not be erected over any closed or open vessel unless the vessel is so constructed and ventilated  to  prevent  exposure of persons working on the stages.


(3)                All  the staging constructed for the purpose of this para  shall  have appropriate access which are safe and shall be fitted  with proper hand rails to a height of one metre and toe board.


17.              Seating  Arrangements -  The seating arrangements provided  for  the operating  personnel  working in processes covered in  Appendix `A’  shall be located in a safe manner as to prevent the risk of exposure to  toxic,  flammable and explosive substances evolved in  the  work environment  in the course of manufacture or repair or  maintenance,  either  due to  failure of plant and equipment or due to  the substances which are under pressure, escaping into the atmosphere.


18.              Entry into or work in confined spaces -



(1)        The  occupier of every factory to which the provisions  of  this schedule  apply,  shall ensure the observance of  the  following precautions before permitting any person to enter or work inside  the confined spaces -


(a)                identify all confined spaces and the nature of hazards that  are encountered in such spaces, normally or abnormally, and  arrange to  develop  the most appropriate safeguards  for  ensuring  the safety  and health of persons entering into or  working  inside, the confined spaces;


(b)                regulate the entry or work inside the confined spaces through a `permit  to work system’ which should include the safeguards  so  developed as required under sub-clause (a) above;


(c)                before  testing the confined space for entry into or  work,  the place  shall  be rendered safe by  washing  or  cleaning  with neutralising  agents; or purging with steam or inert  gases  and  making adequate forced ventilation arrangements or such  measure which will render the confined space safe;


(d)                shall arrange to carry out such tests as are necessary for  the purpose by a competent person and ensure that the confined space is safe for the persons to enter or work.  Such testing shall be carried out as often as is necessary during the course of  work  to ensure its continued safety;


(e)                shall  arrange to educate and train  the personnel who would  be required to work in confined spaces about the hazards  involved  in  the work. He shall also keep in readiness  the  appropriate and approved   personal   protective equipment  including  arrangements for, rescue resurrection and first aid,  and  shall arrange  supervision of the work at all times by  a  responsible  and knowledgeable person.


(2)       The  manager shall maintain a log of all entry into or work  in, confined spaces and such record shall contain the details of persons assigned for the work, the location of the work and such  other  details that would have a bearing on the log  book  so maintained shall be retained as long as the concerned workers are in service and produces to the Inspector when demanded.


19.       Maintenance work etc -


(1)               All  the work connected with the maintenance of plants and equipment including cleaning of empty containers which have held  hazardous substances used in the processes covered in this  Schedule, shall be carried out under `permit to work system’ employing  trained  personnel and under the  supervision of responsible person, having knowledge of the  hazards  and precautions required to deal with them.


(2)               Maintenance  work  shall be carried out in such  a  manner  that  there  is no risk to persons in the vicinity or to  persons  who  pass by.  If necessary, the place of such work shall be cordoned  off  or  the  presence  of  unconnected   persons   effectively  controlled.


20.        Permit  to work system - The permit to work system shall  inter-alia  include the observance of the following precautions while  carrying  out any specified work to be subjected to the permit to work system -


(a)                 all work subject to the permit to work system shall be carried  out under the supervision of a  knowledgeable  and  responsible person;


(b)                 all parts of plant or machinery or equipment on which permit  to work  system  is carried out, shall remain isolated  from  other parts  throughout the period of permit to work and the place of  work  including the parts of plant, machinery shall be  rendered   safe by cleaning, purging, washing, etc.;


(c)                 all  work subject to the permit to work system shall  have  predetermined work procedures which integrate safety with the work. Such procedures shall be reviewed whenever any  change occurs in material or equipment so that continued safety is ensured;


(d)                 persons  who are assigned to carry out the permit to work  system shall  be  physically  fir in  all   respects   taking   into consideration  the  demands  and  nature,  of  the  work  before entering  into  the  confined  space.   Such  person  shall be adequately informed about the correct work procedures as well as  the precautions  to be observed while carrying out the permit to work system;


(e)                 adequate  rescue arrangements wherever considered necessary  and  adequate  first aid, rescue and resurrection arrangements  shall be  available in good working condition near the place  of  work   while  carrying  out  the  permit to work  system,  for  use  in  emergency;


(f)                   appropriate and approved personal protective equipment shall  be  used while carrying out the `permit to work system’;


(g)                 after completion of work subject to the `permit to work  system’  the person responsible shall remove all the equipment and  tools  and  restore to the original condition so as to prevent  any danger while carrying out regular process.



21.              Safety  sampling personnel - The occupier shall ensure the safety  of persons assigned for collecting samples by instructing them on  the safe  procedures.  Such personnel shall be provided with proper and approved personal protective equipment, if required.


22.              Ventilation -  Adequate ventilation arrangements shall be provided  and maintained at all times in the process area where dangerous or toxic or flammable or explosive substances could be evolved.   These arrangements shall ensure that concentrations, which are either harmful or could result in explosion, are not permitted to be  built  up in the work environment.


23.              Procedures for meeting emergencies -


(1)                 The occupier of every factory carrying out the works covered  in  Appendix `A’, shall arrange to identify all types  of  possible  emergencies that could occur in the processes during the  course  of  work or while carrying out maintenance work or repair  work.  The emergencies so identified shall be reviewed every year.


(2)                 The  occupier shall formulate a detailed plan to meet  all  such identified emergencies including  arrangements  for  summoning outside  help  for  rescue and fire fighting arrangements for making available urgent medical facilities.


(3)                 The occupier shall send the list of emergencies and the  details of  procedures and plans formulated to meet the emergencies,  to the Chief Inspector of Factories.


(4)                 The occupier shall arrange  to install distinctive and recognisable warning arrangements to caution all persons  inside the  plant as well as the neighbouring community, if  necessary, to enable evacuation of persons and to enable the observance of emergency  procedures by the persons who are assigned emergency  duties.   All concerned must be well informed about the  warning arrangements and their meaning.  The arrangements must be checked for its effectiveness every month.


(5)                 Alternate power supply arrangements shall be made and interlocked  with  the normal power supply system so as to ensure constant supply of power  to the facilities and equipment  meant  for compliance with requirements of Paragraphs 10, 11, 12, 13,  14, 18,  22, and this paragraph of Part II, Part III, Part IV and Part V of this Schedule.


(6)                 The  occupier shall arrange to suspend the further process  work  in a place where emergency is established and  shall  forthwith  evacuate  all persons in that area except workers who have  been assigned emergency duties.


(7)                 All the employees of the factory shall be trained about the action to be taken by them  including  evacuation  procedures  during emergencies.


(8)                 All emergency procedures must be rehearsed every three months and  deficiencies, if any, in the achievement of the objectives shall   suitably be corrected.


(9)                 The  occupier shall arrange to have ten percent of  the  workers  trained in the use of First Aid Fire Fighting appliances and  in  the rendering of specific hazards of the particular process.


(10)            The  occupier shall furnish immediately on request the specific chemical identity of the hazardous substance to the  treating  physician  where the information is needed to administer  proper  emergency or first-aid treatment to exposed persons.


24.      Danger due to effluents -


(1)                   Adequate precautions shall be taken to prevent the mixing of effluents from different processes and  operations  which  may  cause dangerous or poisonous gases to be evolved.


(2)                   Effluents  which contain or give rise in the presence of other effluents to poisonous gases shall be provided with independent  drainage systems to ensure that they may be trapped and rendered safe.




Fire and Explosion Risks


1.         Sources of ignition including lighting installation.-


(1)       No  internal combustion engine and no electric motor  or  other   electrical  equipment,  and  fittings and  fixtures  capable  of  generating  sparks or otherwise causing combustion or any  other source of  ignition or any naked light shall  be  installed  or  permitted  to be in the process area where there could  be  fire and explosion hazards.


(2)       All hot exhaust pipes shall be installed outside a building  and other hot pipes or hot surface or surfaces likely to become  hot  shall be suitably protected.


(3)                The  classification of work areas  in terms  of its  hazard potential and the selection of electrical equipment or other equipment that could constitute a source of ignition shall be in accordance with the respective Indian Standard.


(4)                Where a flammable atmosphere may be prevalent or  could  occur, the soles of footwear worn by workers shall have no metal on them, and the wheels of trucks or conveyors shall be  conductive  type.


(5)                All tools and appliances used for work in this area shall be  of  non-sparking type.


(6)                Smoking  in  process  areas where there are risks  of  fire  and explosion  shall  be  prohibited, and  warning  notices  in  the language understood by majority of workers shall be  posted  in  the factory prohibiting smoking into specified areas.


2.         Static Electricity -


(1)                All  machinery  and  plant, particularly, pipe  lines  and  belt drives, on which static charge is likely to accumulate, shall be effectively  earthed.  Receptacles for flammable  liquids  shall  have metallic connections to the earthed supply tanks  to prevent static sparking.  Where necessary, humidity shall be regulated.


(2)                Mobile  tanker  wagons  shall  be  earthed  during  filling  and discharge,  and  precautions  shall  be  taken  to  ensure  that  earthing  is effective before such filling or  discharge  take  place.


3.         Lightning  protection - Lightening protection arrangement shall  be fitted where necessary, and shall be maintained.


4.         Process heating - The method of providing heat for a process  likely  to  result  in fire and explosion shall be as safe as  possible  and where  the  use of naked flame is necessary, the plant shall  be  so constructed  as  to prevent any escaping flammable gas,  vapour,  or dust coming into contact with the flame, or exhaust gases, or other  sources  likely to cause ignition.  Wherever possible,  the  heating  arrangement shall be automatically controlled at a pre-determined temperature below the danger temperature.


5.         Leakage of flammable liquids -


(1)       Provision shall be made to confine by means of bund walls, dykes, sumps etc.  possible  leakages  from  storage   vessels containing flammable liquids.


(2)       Waste material  in contact with flammable substances shall be disposed off suitably under the supervision of knowledgeable and responsible person.


(3)                 Adequate and suitable  fire-fighting  appliances shall be installed in the vicinity of such vessels.


6.         Safety valves -  Every still and every closed vessel which gas is evolved  or into which gas is passed, and in which the pressure is liable to rise above the atmospheric pressure, shall have  attached  to it a pressure gauge, and a proper safety valve or other equally efficient means to relieve the pressure. These appliances shall  be maintained in good condition.


7.         Installation of pipe line etc - All pipelines carrying flammable or explosive substances shall be protected from mechanical damage and shall be examined by a responsible person once a week to detect any deterioration or defects, or accumulation of flammable or explosive substances, and record kept of any defects found and repairs made.


8.         Fire fighting systems  -


(1)       Every  factory  employing 500 or more persons and  carrying  out  processes listed in Appendix `A’ shall provide -


(a)       Trained   and   responsible  fire  fighting  squad  so   as   to  effectively handle the fire fighting and life saving  equipment in  the event of fire or other emergency.  Number of persons  in  this  squad  will  necessarily depend upon  the  size   of  risk involved,  but  in  no case shall be less than  8  such  trained persons to be available at any time.  The squad shall consist of  watch  &  ward personnel, fire pump man and   departmental supervisors  and  operators trained in the operation of  fire  & emergency services.


(b)       Squad  leaders shall preferably be trained in  a  recognised  government  institution  and their usefulness  enhanced  by  providing residence on the premises.


(c)        Squad  personnel   shall  be  provided  with  clothing   and   equipment including helmets, boots and belts.


(2)      A muster roll showing the duties allocated to each member of the squad shall be prepared and copies supplied to each leader as well as displayed in prominent places so as to be easily   available for reference in case of emergency.


(3)               The pump man shall be thoroughly conversant with the location of  all appliances.  He shall be responsible for maintaining all fire fighting  equipment in proper working order. Any defect coming to his notice shall be immediately be brought to the notice  of  squad leader.


(4)               As far as is practicable, the fire pump room and  the  main gate(s) of  the factory be connected to all manufacturing or storing areas through telephone inter lined and  placed  in  a convenient location near such areas.


Risks of Toxic Substances


1.         Leakage -


(1)                 All  plants shall be so designed and constructed as  to  prevent the escape of toxic  substance.  Where  necessary, separate  buildings, rooms, or protective structures shall be used for the dangerous stages of the process and buildings shall be so designed as to localise any escape of toxic substances.


(2)                 Catch  pits,  bund walls, dykes, or other  suitable  safeguards shall  be  provided  to restrict the  serious  effects of such leakages.  Catch pits shall be placed below joints in  pipelines where there is danger involved to maintenance and other  workers  from such leakage.


2.         Drainage -  Adequate drainage shall  be provided and shall  lead  to  collection  tanks  specifically provided for  this  purpose  wherein  deleterious  material  shall be neutralised,  treated  or  otherwise rendered safe before it is discharged into public drains or sewers.


3.       Covering of vessels -


(1)                Every fixed vessel or structure containing any toxic  substance  and  not  so  covered as to eliminate all reasonable risk of accidental contact of any portion of the body of a worker, shall be so constructed as to avoid physical contact.


(2)                Such  vessel  shall, unless its edge is at least  90  centimetres  above the adjoining ground or platform, be securely fenced to  a   height of at least 90 centimetres above such adjoining ground  or  platform.


(3)        Where  such vessels adjoin and the space between them, clear  of  any  surrounding   brick or other work is either  less  than  45 centimetres in width or is 45 or more centimetres in width,  but  is  not securely fenced on both sides to a height of at least  90 centimetres,  secure barriers shall be so placed as  to  prevent  passage between them :


Provided  that  sub-paragraph (2) of this  paragraph  shall  not apply to -

(a)             saturators  used in the manufacture of sulphate of  ammonia; and


(b)             that part of  the sides of brine  evaporating  pans  which require raking, drawing or filling.


4.         Continuous exhaust arrangement -


(1)                Any process evolving toxic vapour, gas, fume and substance shall  have  efficient  continuous exhaust draught.  Such arrangement shall be interlocked in the process control wherever possible.


(2)                In the event of failure of continuous exhaust arrangement means shall be provided to automatically stop the process.


5.         Work Bench - All the work benches used in the processes involving the manipulation of toxic substances, shall be graded properly and shall be made of smooth impervious surface which shall  be  washed daily after the completion of work.


6.         Waste disposal -


(1)                 There  shall  be  provided a suitable receptacle made of  non-absorbable material with a tightly fitting cover for depositing waste material soiled with toxic substances and the contents of such receptacle shall be destroyed by burning or using other suitable methods under the supervision of a responsible person.


(2)                 During the course of manufacture, whenever any batch or intermediate products having   toxicity is rejected on considerations of quality, sufficient precautions shall be taken  to render them innocuous or otherwise treat them or  inactivate them, before disposal.


(3)                 The empty containers of toxic substances  shall  be  cleaned  thoroughly before disposal under  the  supervision of  a  responsible person.


Special Provisions


1.         Special precautions for Nitro or Amino Processes -      


(1)                 Unless the crystallised intro or amino substances or any of its liquor is broken or agitated in a completely enclosed process so as not to give rise to dust or fume, such process shall be carried on under an efficient exhaust draught or by adopting any other suitable means in such a manner as to prevent the escape of dust or fume in the working atmosphere.


(2)                 No part of the plant or equipment or implements which was in contact with nitro or amino compounds shall be repaired, or handled unless they have been emptied and thoroughly cleaned and decontaminated.


(3)                 Filling of containers with nitro or amino compounds shall be done only by using a suitable scoop to avoid physical contact and the drying of the containers in the stove shall be done in such a manner that the hot and contaminated air from the stove is not drawn into the work room.


(4)                 Processes involving the steaming into or around any vessel containing nitro or amino compounds or its raw materials shall be carried out in such a manner that the steam or vapour is effectively prevented to be blown back into the working atmosphere.


(5)                 Suitable antidotes such as methylene blue injections shall always be available at designated places of work for use during emergency involving the poisoning with nitro or amino compounds.


2.         Special precautions for `chrome processes -


(1)                 Grinding and sieving of raw materials in chrome processes shall be carried on in such a manner and under such condition as to secure effective separation from any other processes and under an efficient exhaust draught.


(2)                 There shall be washing facilities located very near to places where wet chrome processes such as leaching, acidification, sulphate settling, evaporation, crystallisation, centrifugation or packing are carried out, to enable quick washing of affected parts of body with running water.


(3)                 Weekly inspection of hand and feet of all persons employed in  chrome process shall be done by a qualified nurse and record of such inspections shall be maintained in a form approved by  the Chief Inspector of Factories.


(4)                 There shall be always available at designated places of work suitable ointment such as glycerine, vaseline, etc.  and  water proof  plaster  in  a separate box  readily  accessible  to  the workers so as to protect against perforation of nasal septum.


3.         Special precautions for processes carried out in all glass vessels -


(1)                 Processes  and chemical reactions such as manufacture  of  vinyl chloride, benzyl chloride etc. which are required to be  carried out  in  all  glass  vessels  shall  have  suitable  means  like substantial wire mesh covering to protect persons working  nearby  in the event of breakage of glass vessel


(2)                 Any spillage or emission of vapour from the all glass vessel due to breakage, shall be immediately inactivated or rendered innocuous by  suitable  means such as dilution  with  water  or suitable solvents so as to avoid the risks of fire or  explosion  or health hazards.


4.         Special precautions for processes involving chlorate manufacture -


(1)                Crystallisation, grinding or packing of chlorate shall not be done in a place used for any other purpose and such places shall have hard, smooth and impervious surface made of non-combustible material.  The place shall be thoroughly cleaned daily.


(2)                The personal protective equipment likes overall, etc.  provided for  the chlorate workers shall not be taken from the  place  of  work and they shall be thoroughly cleaned daily.


(3)                Adequate quantity of water shall be available near the place of  chlorate process for use during fire emergency.


(4)                Wooden vessels shall not be used for  the  crystallisation  of  chlorate or to contain crystallised ground chlorate.


5.         Special  precautions in the use of plant and equipment made from reinforced plastics -


(1)        All plant and equipment shall conform to appropriate Indian  or   any other National Standard.


(2)        Care shall betaken during storage, transport, handling and  installation of plant and equipment to avoid accidental damage.


(3)                 All plant and equipment shall be installed in such a way as to ensure that loads are distributed as intended in design  or  as per the recommendations of the manufacture.


(4)                 All  pipe work shall be supported so that total loads  local to the branches on the vessel or tank do not exceed  their  design  values.


(5)                 After erection all plant and equipment shall be subjected to a pressure test followed by a thorough examination by a competent person. The test and examination shall be  as  per  relevant  Standard.   A certificate of test and examination  by  a competent   person shall be obtained and kept available at site.


(6)                 All  plant and equipment shall be subjected to periodical  test  and  examination  and record maintained as per Paragraph  15  in  Part II of this Schedule.


(7)                 Plant and equipment during their use shall not be subjected  to  over filling or over loading beyond rated capacity.



Medical Requirements


1.         Decontamination  facilities - In all places where  toxic  substances are  used  in  processes  listed  in  Appendix  `A’  the   following  provisions shall be made to meet an emergency:


(a)                fully equipped first aid box;


(b)                readily accessible means of drenching with water persons,  parts of  body  of  persons, and clothing of  persons  who  have  been  contaminated with such toxic and corrosive substances, and  such  means shall be as shown in the Table below :


       No.of persons                    No. of drenching showers

employed at any time                 showers

           -----------------------                  ----------------------------------

            Upto 50 persons                               2

            Between 51 to 100                           3                 

101 to 200                             3 + 1 for every 50  persons thereafter

201 to 400                             5 + 1 for every 100 persons thereafter

401 and above                      7 + 1 for every 200 persons thereafter



(c)        a  sufficient number of eye wash bottles filled  with  distilled  water or suitable liquid, kept  in  boxes   or cupboards conveniently situated and clearly indicated by a distinctive sign which shall be visible at all times.


2.         Occupational  health  centre -  In all the  factories  carrying  out  processes  covered  in  Appendix `A’ there  shall  be  provided  and maintained in good  order  an occupational health centre with facilities as per scale laid down hereunder


(1)               For factories employing upto workers –


(a)           the services of a qualified medical practitioner  hereinafter known  as Factory Medical Officer, available on  a  retainership basis,  in his notified clinic near to the factory  for  seeking medical help during emergency.  He will also carry out the  pre-employment and periodical medical examinations as stipulated  in  paragraph 4 of this Part.


(b)           A  minimum  of  five persons trained in  first  aid  procedures, amongst whom at least one shall always be available during  the  working period.


(c)            A fully equipped first aid box.


(2)               For factories employing 51 to 200 workers –


(a)           The  occupational  health  centre shall have  a  room  having  a  minimum  floor area of 15 sq.m., with floors and walls  made  of smooth, hard  and impervious surface and  shall  be  adequately illuminated, ventilated and equipped.

(b)           A part-time Factory Medical Officer will be in over all  charge of  the Centre who shall visit the factory minimum twice  in  a  week  and  whose  services shall be readily  available  during  emergencies.

(c)            There shall be one qualified and trained  dresser-cum-compounder  on duty throughout the working period.

(d)           A fully equipped first aid box.


(3)               For factories employing above 200 workers –


(a)         There  shall  be  one  full-time  Factory  Medical  Officer  for  factories employing upto  500 workers  and  one  more  medical officer for every 1000 workers or part thereof.

(b)         The occupational health centre in this case shall have a minimum of 2 rooms each having a minimum floor area of 15  sq.m. with  floors and walls made of smooth, hard and impervious surface and shall be adequately illuminated, ventilated and equipped.

(c)          There shall be one trained nurse, one dresser-cum-compounder and  one sweeper-cum-ward boy throughout the working period.

(d)         The  Occupational Health Centre in this case shall  be  suitably  equipped to manage medical emergencies.


3.        Ambulance van -


(1)                In every factory carrying out processes covered in Appendix `A’, there  shall  be provided and maintained in  good  condition, a  suitably  constructed  and fully equipped ambulance van  as  per Appendix  `C’  manned by a full-time driver-cum-mechanic and a helper, trained in first aid for the purposes of transportation of serious cases of accidents or sickness unless  arrangements for procuring such facility at short notice during emergencies have  been made with the nearby hospital or other places.  The ambulance van shall not be used for any purpose other than the purpose stipulated herein and will always be available near the Occupational Health Centre.


(2)                The  relaxation to procure Ambulance Van from nearby places provided  for in sub-para (1) above will not be applicable  to  factories employing more than 500 workers.


4.         Medical examination -


(1)                Workers employed in processes covered in Appendix `A’ shall  be medically examined by a Factory Medical Officer in the following manner –


(a)               Once before employment, to ascertain physical suitability of the person to do the particular job;


(b)               Once in a period of 6 months, to ascertain the health status  of  the worker, and


(c)               The details of  pre-employment  and  periodical  medical examinations  carried out as aforesaid shall be recorded in  the  prescribed form.


(2)       Any finding  of the Factory  Medical  Officer  revealing  any abnormality or unsuitability of any person employed in the process shall immediately be reported to the Certifying Surgeon who shall in turn, examine the concerned workers and communicate his findings within 30 days.  If the Certifying Surgeon is of  the opinion  that  the person so examined is required  to  be  suspended from the process for health protection he will direct  the  occupier accordingly, who shall not employ the said  worker in the same process.  However, the person so suspended from  the process  shall be provided with alternate placement facilities unless he is fully incapacitated in  the opinion  of  the Certifying  Surgeon, in which case the person affected shall be suitably rehabilitated :


Provided that the Certifying Surgeon on his own may examine  any  other  worker  whom  he  feels  necessary  to  be  examined  for  ascertaining  the suitability of his employment in  the  process covered in Appendix `A’ or for ascertaining the health status of  any other worker and his opinion shall be final.

(3)       No person shall be newly appointed without the  Certificate of Fitness granted by the Factory Medical Officer.  If the Factory Medical  Officer declares a person unfit for being appointed  to work  in the process covered in Appendix `A’, such person  shall   have a right of appeal to the Certifying Surgeon, whose opinion shall be final in this regard.


(4)       The worker suspended from the process owing to the circumstances covered  in  sub-para (2) shall be employed again in  the same  process  only after obtaining the Fitness Certificate  from  the  Certifying Surgeon and after making entries to that  effect  in  the health register.




Additional Welfare Amenities


1.         Washing facilities -


(1)       There shall be provided and maintained in every factory for  the   use of all the workers taps for washing, at the rate of one every 15 persons including liquid soap in a container with tilting  arrangements and nail brushes or other suitable means for effective cleaning. Such facilities shall be conveniently accessible and shall be kept in a clean and hygienic condition.


(2)       If washing facilities as required above are provided for  women, such facilities shall be separate for them and adequate  privacy at all times shall be ensured in such facilities.


2.         Mess room facilities -


(1)                 The occupier of all the factories carrying out processes covered in Appendix `A’ and employing 50 workers or more, shall provide for all the workers working in a shift mess room facilities which are well ventilated and provided with tables and sitting facilities along with the provision of cold and hygienic drinking water facilities.


(2)                 Such facilities shall include suitable arrangements for cleaning and washing and shall be maintained in a  clean  and  hygienic  condition.


3.   Cloakroom facilities -


(1)                 The  occupier of every factory carrying out any process covered in Appendix `A’ shall provide for all the workers employed  in the process cloak room facilities with lockers.  Each  worker  shall  be provided with two lockers, one for work clothing and another separately for personal clothing and the lockers  should be such as to enable the keeping of the clothing in  a  hanging   position.


(2)                 The cloak room facilities provided in pursuance of sub-para  (1) shall be located as far as possible near to the facilities provided for washing in pursuance of para 1(1).  If it  is  not  possible to locate the washing facilities the cloakroom facilities shall have adequate and suitable  arrangements  for cleaning & washing.


4.   Special bathing facilities -


(1)                 The occupier of any factory carrying out the process covered  under Appendix `B’ shall provide special bathing facilities for all  the workers employed and such facilities shall be  provided  at  the rate of 1 for 25 workers and part thereof, and shall  be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition.


(2)                 The  occupier shall  insist all the  workers  employed  in  the processes  covered  in  Appendix  `B’ to  take bath after the completion of  the day’s  or  shift  work  using  the  bathing  facilities  so provided and shall also effectively prevent such of those workers taking bath in any place other than the bathing facilities.


(3)                 Notwithstanding  anything contained in sub-para (1)  above,  the  Chief  Inspector  may  require in writing the  occupier of any factory carrying out any other process for which  his  opinion  bathing facilities are essential from the health point of  view, to provide special bathing facilities.



1.         Duties of workers -


(1)       Every  worker employed in the processes covered in Appendix ‘A’ and  Appendix ‘B’ shall not make safety device or appliance or any guarding or fencing arrangement, inoperative  or  defective  and  shall  report  the defective  condition  of  the  aforesaid   arrangements as soon as he is aware of any such defect.


(2)        Before  commencing any work, all workers employed  in  processes covered  in  Appendix ‘A’ shall check their workplace as well as the machinery, equipment or appliance used in the processes and report any mal-function or defect immediately to the supervisor or any responsible person of the management.


(3)                 All workers shall co-operate in all respects with the management while carrying out any work or any emergency duty  assigned  to them in pursuance of this schedule and shall always use all the personal  protective  equipment  issued to them  in  a  careful  manner.


(4)                 All workers employed in the processes covered in Appendix `A’ or Appendix `B’ shall not smoke in the process area or storage area.  If special facilities are provided by the management only such facilities should be used.


(5)                 All  workers employed in the processes covered in Appendix `A’ shall not remain in unauthorised place or carry cut unauthorised  work  or improvise any arrangement or adopt short out method or misuse any of  the facilities provided  in  pursuance  of  the   Schedule,  in  such a manner as to cause risk to  themselves  as well as or to others employed.


(6)                 The  workers shall not refuse undergoing medical examination  as  required under these rules.



Restrictions  on the employment of young persons under 18 years of  age  and women

(1)                The Chief Inspector of Factories may by an order  in  writing,  restrict  or prohibit the employment of women and young persons under the age of 18, in any of the processes covered in Appendix `A’ of this schedule on considerations of health and safety  of  women and young persons.


(2)                Such  persons who are restricted or prohibited from  working  in  the  process  due to the order issued in pursuance of sub-para (1) above shall be provided with alternate work which  is  not detrimental to their health or safety.





1.         Power of exemption - The State Government or subject to the control of the State Government the Chief Inspector may exempt from the compliance with any of the requirements of this Schedule partly  or fully, any factory carrying out processes covered in Appendix  `A’, if it is clearly and satisfactorily established by the occupier that the compliance with any of the requirement is not necessary to ensure  the safety and health of persons employed suitable and effective alternate arrangements are available to  any  of  the requirements covered in this schedule.



Appendix `A’

Any works or that part of works in which –


(a)        the  manufacture,  manipulation  or  recovery  of  any  of   the  following is carried on :-


(i)                 sodium,  potassium, iron, aluminium, cobalt, nickel,  copper, arsenic, antimony, chromium, zinc, selenium, magnesium, cadmium, mercury, beryllium and their organic and inorganic salts, alloys, oxides and hydroxides;


(ii)               ammonia, ammonium hydroxide and salts of ammonium;


(iii)             the  organic or inorganic compounds of sulphurous, sulphuric, nitric, nitrous, hydrochloric,  hydrofluoric,  hydriodic, hydro sulphuric, hydrobromic, boric;


(iv)              cyanogen compounds, cyanide compounds, cyanate compounds;


(v)                phosphorous and its compounds other  than  oregano  phosphorus insecticides.


(vi)              chlorine



(b)       hydrogen sulphide is evolved by the decomposition of metallic sulphides, or hydrogen sulphide is used in the  production  of   such sulphides;


(c)        bleaching powder is manufactured or chlorine gas is produced  in  chlor-alkali  plants;


(d)        (i)        gas tar or coal tar or bitumen or shale oil  asphalt  or  any  residue  of such tar is distilled or is used in any  process  of chemicals manufacture;


(ii)        tar based synthetic colouring matters or their intermediates are  produced;


(e)        nitric acid is used in the manufacture of nitro compounds;


(f)         explosives are produced with the use of nitro compounds;


(g)        aliphatic or aromatic compounds or their metallic and non-metallic derivatives or substituted  derivatives, such as chloroform, ethylene  glycol, formaldehyde,  benzyle  chloride, phenol, methyl ethyl keytone peroxide, cobalt carbonyl,  tungsten   carbide etc. are manufactured or recovered.


Appendix `B’

Concerning Special Bathing Accommodation in pursuance of Para 4 of Part  IV

1.                   Nitro or amido processes


2.                   All chrome processes


3.                   Processes  of distilling gas or coal tar or processes  of  chemical  manufacture in which tar is used


4.                   Processes involving manufacture, manipulation, handling or recovery of cyanogen compound, cyanide compound, cyanate compounds


5.                   Processes involving manufacture of bleaching powder or production of chlorine gas in chlor-alkali plants


6.                   Manufacture, manipulation or recovery of nickel and its compounds


7.                   All processes involving the manufacture, manipulation or recovery of aliphatic or aromatic compounds or their derivatives or  substituted derivatives.



Appendix `C’


Ambulance should have the following equipment :

General  :

·        An wheeled stretcher with folding and adjusting devices;  Head of the stretcher must be capable of being tilted upward;

·        Fixed suction unit with equipment;

·        Fixed oxygen supply with equipment;

·        Pillow with case;

·        Sheets;

·        Blankets;

·        Towels;

·        Emesis bag;

·        Bed pan;

·        Urinal;

·        Glass


Safety equipment :

·        Flares with life of 30 minutes

·        Flood lights;

·        Flash lights;

·        Fire extinguisher dry powder type;

·        Insulated gauntlets.


Emergency care equipment :-

Resuscitation :

·        Portable suction unit;

·        Portable oxygen unit;

·        Bag-valve-mask, hand operated artificial ventilation unit;

·        Airways;

·        Mouth gags;

·        Tracheostomy adapters;

·        Short spine board;

·        I.V. Fluids with administration unit;

·        B.P. manometer;

·        Cugg;

·        Stethoscope


·        Long & short padded boards;

·        Wire ladder splints;

·        Triangular bandage;

·        Long & short spine boards.

Dressings :

·        Gauze pads - 4” x 4” ;

·        Universal dressing 10” x 36” ;

·        Roll of aluminium foils;

·        Soft roller bandages 6” x 5 yards;

·        Adhesive tape in 3” roll;

·        Safety pins;

·        Bandage sheets;

·        Burn sheet.

Poisoning :

·        Syrup of Ipecac;                    }           } Pre packeted in doses

·        Activated charcoal;               }                     

·        Snake bite kit;

·        Drinking water.

Emergency Medicines:

·        As per requirement (under the advice of Medical Officer only)