Schedule – XVIII

Process  of  extracting  oils and  fats from vegetables  and  animal  sources in solvent extraction plants


1.                   Definitions - For the purposes of this schedule –


(a)                “solvent  extraction plant” means a plant in which the  process  of extracting oils and fats from vegetable and animal sources by  use of solvents is carried on;


(b)                “solvent” means  an flammable  liquid  such as pentane, hexane and heptane use for the recovery of  vegetable oils;


(c)                “flameproof  enclosure”  as applied to electrical  machinery  or apparatus  means an  enclosure that will withstand, when  covers   or  other  access doors  are  properly  secured,  an   internal explosion  of  the flammable gas or vapour which  may  enter or which may  originate  inside the  enclosure  without  suffering damage  and  without communicating internal  inflammation  (or explosion) to the external flammable gas or vapour;


(d)                “competent person” for the  purpose of this schedule shall  be at least  a member of  the Institution of Engineers ( India) or  an Associate Member of  the said  Institution  with 10 years   experience  in a responsible position as may be approved by  the Chief Inspector:


Provided that a graduate in mechanical engineering or chemical technology with specialised  knowledge of oils and fats and  with  a  minimum  experience of 5 years in a solvent extraction  plant  shall also be considered to the a competent  person.


Provided further that the State Government may accept any other qualifications if  in  its opinion they  are  equivalent  to the qualifications aforesaid.


2.         Location and layout - (1) No solvent extraction plant shall be permitted to be constructed or  extended to within a distance of 30 meters from  the  nearest  residential  locality.


(2)                 A  1.5 meter high continuous wire fencing shall be provided around  the solvent/ extraction plant upto a minimum distance of 15 meters from the plant.


(3)                 No person shall be allowed to carry any matches or an open flame or fire inside the area bound by the fencing.


(4)                 Boiler houses and other buildings where open flame processes are  carried on shall be  located at least  30  meters  away  from   the solvent extraction plant;


(5)                 If godowns and preparatory processes are at a distance of less than 30 metres from the solvent extraction plant, these shall be at least 15 meters distant from the plant, and a  continuous barrier wall of non-combustible material 1.5 meters high shall be erected at a distance of not less than 15 meters from  the solvent  extraction  plant so that it extends to at  least 30 meters of vapour travel around its ends from the plant to the possible sources of ignition.


3.         Electrical installations - (1) All electrical motors and wiring and other electrical equipment  installed or housed insolvent extraction plant  shall  be of flameproof  construction.


(2)       All metal parts of the plant and building including various  tanks  and containers where solvents are stored or are present and all parts of electrical equipment not required to be energised  shall be properly bonded  together and  connected  to  earth so as to avoid  accidental rise  in  the  electrical  potential of such parts above the earth  potential.


4.         Restriction on smoking -  Smoking shall strictly prohibited within 15 meters distance from solvent extraction plant.  For this purpose,   “NO smoking” sings shall be permanently displayed in the area.


5.         Precautions against friction - (1)All tools and equipment including ladders, chains and other  lifting tackle required to be used in solvent extraction  plant shall be of non-sparking type.


(2)        No machinery or equipment in any solvent extraction plant  shall  be belt driven, unless the belt used is of such a type that it does not permit accumulation of static electricity  to   a  dangerous level.


(3)       No person shall be allowed to enter and work in  the  solvent  extraction plant if wearing clothes made of nylon or such other fibre that can generate static electrical charge, or wearing   footwear which is likely to cause sparks by friction.


6.         Fire fighting apparatus - (1) Adequate number of portable fire extinguishers suitable for use  against flammable liquid fires shall be provided  in the solvent  extraction plant.


(2)        An automatic water spray sprinkler system on a wet pipe or open-head deluge system with sufficient supply of storage water shall be provided over solvent extraction plant and  throughout the building housing such plant.


7.         Precautions against power failure -  Provision shall be made for the automatic cutting off of steam in the event of power failure and also for emergency overhead water-supply for feeding water by  gravity to condensers which shall come into play automatically with the power failure.


8.         Magnetic  Separators - Oil  cake shall be fed to the extractor by  a conveyer  through  a  hopper  and a  magnetic separator shall be provided to remove any  pieces of iron during  pressure in the  event of fire.


9.         Venting - (1)Tanks containing solvents shall be protected with emergency venting to relieve excessive internal pressure in the  event  of  fire.


(2)       All emergency relief vents shall terminate at least 6 meters above the ground and be so located that vapours will not re-enter the building  in which solvent  extraction  plant  is located.


10.       Waste water - Process waste water shall be passed through a flash evaporator to remove any solvent before it is discharged into a sump which should be located within the fenced area but not closer than 8  meters to the fence.


11.       Ventilation - The solvent extraction plant shall be well ventilated and if the plant is housed in a building, the building shall be provided with mechanical ventilation with provision for at least six air  changes  per hour.


12.       Housekeeping - (1) Solvents shall not be stored in an area covered by solvent extraction plant  except in small quantities which shall be stored  in approved safety cans.


(2)       Waste materials such as oily rags, other wastes and  absorbents used to wipe off solvent and paints and oils shall be deposited  in approved containers and removed from the premises  at  least  once a day.


(3)       Space within the solvent extraction plant and within 15 meters from the plant shall be kept free form any combustible materials and any spills of oil or solvent, shall be cleaned up immediately.           


13.       Examination and repairs - (1) The solvent extraction plant shall be examined by the competent  person to determine any weakness or corrosion  and wear once  in every 12 months.  Report of such examination shall be supplied  to the Inspector  with his observation as to whether or not the  plant is in safe condition to work.


(2)       No repairs shall be carried out to  the machinery or plant  except under the direct supervision of the competent person.


(3)       Facility shall be provided for purging the plant with inert gas or steam before opening for cleaning or repairs  and  before  introducing solvent after repairs.


14.             Operating personnel - The operation of the plant and  machinery in  the solvent extraction plant shall be in the charge of such duly qualified and trained  persons as are certified by  the competent person to be fit for the purpose and no other person shall be allowed to operated the plant and machinery.


15.             Employment   of women  and young persons - No woman or young  person shall  be employed  in the solvent extraction plant.


16.             Vapour  detection - A  suitable  type of flameproof and portable combustible gas indicator shall be provided and maintained in  good  working  order and a schedule of routine sampling of  atmosphere  at various location as approved by the chief inspector shall be drawn out and entered in a register maintained for the purpose.


17.             Exemption -  If in respect of any factory, the Chief  Inspector  is  satisfied that owing to the exceptional circumstances or infrequency of the processes or for any other reason, all  or any  of the provisions  of this schedule is not necessary for the protection of the workers in the factory,  the Chief  Inspector  may by a certificate in writing (which he may in his discretion revoke at any  time) exempt such factory from all or any of such provisions subject  to conditions, if any, as he may specify  therein.