Process of extracting oils and fats from vegetables and animal sources in solvent extraction plants
1. Definitions - For the purposes of this schedule –
(a) “solvent extraction plant” means a plant in which the process of extracting oils and fats from vegetable and animal sources by use of solvents is carried on;
(b) “solvent” means an flammable liquid such as pentane, hexane and heptane use for the recovery of vegetable oils;
(c) “flameproof enclosure” as applied to electrical machinery or apparatus means an enclosure that will withstand, when covers or other access doors are properly secured, an internal explosion of the flammable gas or vapour which may enter or which may originate inside the enclosure without suffering damage and without communicating internal inflammation (or explosion) to the external flammable gas or vapour;
(d) “competent person” for the purpose of this schedule shall be at least a member of the Institution of Engineers ( India) or an Associate Member of the said Institution with 10 years experience in a responsible position as may be approved by the Chief Inspector:
Provided that a graduate in mechanical engineering or chemical technology with specialised knowledge of oils and fats and with a minimum experience of 5 years in a solvent extraction plant shall also be considered to the a competent person.
Provided further that the State Government may accept any other qualifications if in its opinion they are equivalent to the qualifications aforesaid.
2. Location and layout - (1) No solvent extraction plant shall be permitted to be constructed or extended to within a distance of 30 meters from the nearest residential locality.
(2) A 1.5 meter high continuous wire fencing shall be provided around the solvent/ extraction plant upto a minimum distance of 15 meters from the plant.
(3) No person shall be allowed to carry any matches or an open flame or fire inside the area bound by the fencing.
(4) Boiler houses and other buildings where open flame processes are carried on shall be located at least 30 meters away from the solvent extraction plant;
(5) If godowns and preparatory processes are at a distance of less than 30 metres from the solvent extraction plant, these shall be at least 15 meters distant from the plant, and a continuous barrier wall of non-combustible material 1.5 meters high shall be erected at a distance of not less than 15 meters from the solvent extraction plant so that it extends to at least 30 meters of vapour travel around its ends from the plant to the possible sources of ignition.
3. Electrical installations - (1) All electrical motors and wiring and other electrical equipment installed or housed insolvent extraction plant shall be of flameproof construction.
(2) All metal parts of the plant and building including various tanks and containers where solvents are stored or are present and all parts of electrical equipment not required to be energised shall be properly bonded together and connected to earth so as to avoid accidental rise in the electrical potential of such parts above the earth potential.
4. Restriction on smoking - Smoking shall strictly prohibited within 15 meters distance from solvent extraction plant. For this purpose, “NO smoking” sings shall be permanently displayed in the area.
5. Precautions against friction - (1)All tools and equipment including ladders, chains and other lifting tackle required to be used in solvent extraction plant shall be of non-sparking type.
(2) No machinery or equipment in any solvent extraction plant shall be belt driven, unless the belt used is of such a type that it does not permit accumulation of static electricity to a dangerous level.
(3) No person shall be allowed to enter and work in the solvent extraction plant if wearing clothes made of nylon or such other fibre that can generate static electrical charge, or wearing footwear which is likely to cause sparks by friction.
6. Fire fighting apparatus - (1) Adequate number of portable fire extinguishers suitable for use against flammable liquid fires shall be provided in the solvent extraction plant.
(2) An automatic water spray sprinkler system on a wet pipe or open-head deluge system with sufficient supply of storage water shall be provided over solvent extraction plant and throughout the building housing such plant.
7. Precautions against power failure - Provision shall be made for the automatic cutting off of steam in the event of power failure and also for emergency overhead water-supply for feeding water by gravity to condensers which shall come into play automatically with the power failure.
8. Magnetic Separators - Oil cake shall be fed to the extractor by a conveyer through a hopper and a magnetic separator shall be provided to remove any pieces of iron during pressure in the event of fire.
9. Venting - (1)Tanks containing solvents shall be protected with emergency venting to relieve excessive internal pressure in the event of fire.
(2) All emergency relief vents shall terminate at least 6 meters above the ground and be so located that vapours will not re-enter the building in which solvent extraction plant is located.
10. Waste water - Process waste water shall be passed through a flash evaporator to remove any solvent before it is discharged into a sump which should be located within the fenced area but not closer than 8 meters to the fence.
11. Ventilation - The solvent extraction plant shall be well ventilated and if the plant is housed in a building, the building shall be provided with mechanical ventilation with provision for at least six air changes per hour.
12. Housekeeping - (1) Solvents shall not be stored in an area covered by solvent extraction plant except in small quantities which shall be stored in approved safety cans.
(2) Waste materials such as oily rags, other wastes and absorbents used to wipe off solvent and paints and oils shall be deposited in approved containers and removed from the premises at least once a day.
(3) Space within the solvent extraction plant and within 15 meters from the plant shall be kept free form any combustible materials and any spills of oil or solvent, shall be cleaned up immediately.
13. Examination and repairs - (1) The solvent extraction plant shall be examined by the competent person to determine any weakness or corrosion and wear once in every 12 months. Report of such examination shall be supplied to the Inspector with his observation as to whether or not the plant is in safe condition to work.
(2) No repairs shall be carried out to the machinery or plant except under the direct supervision of the competent person.
(3) Facility shall be provided for purging the plant with inert gas or steam before opening for cleaning or repairs and before introducing solvent after repairs.
14. Operating personnel - The operation of the plant and machinery in the solvent extraction plant shall be in the charge of such duly qualified and trained persons as are certified by the competent person to be fit for the purpose and no other person shall be allowed to operated the plant and machinery.
15. Employment of women and young persons - No woman or young person shall be employed in the solvent extraction plant.
16. Vapour detection - A suitable type of flameproof and portable combustible gas indicator shall be provided and maintained in good working order and a schedule of routine sampling of atmosphere at various location as approved by the chief inspector shall be drawn out and entered in a register maintained for the purpose.
17. Exemption - If in respect of any factory, the Chief Inspector is satisfied that owing to the exceptional circumstances or infrequency of the processes or for any other reason, all or any of the provisions of this schedule is not necessary for the protection of the workers in the factory, the Chief Inspector may by a certificate in writing (which he may in his discretion revoke at any time) exempt such factory from all or any of such provisions subject to conditions, if any, as he may specify therein.