Manufacture of Rayon by viscose process
1. Definitions - For the purpose of this schedule -
(a) ”approved” means approved for the time being in writing by the Chief Inspector;
(b) ”breathing apparatus” means a helmet or face piece with necessary connections by means of which the person using it in a poisonous, asphyxiating or irritant atmosphere breathes unpolluted air; or any other approved apparatus;
(c) ”churn” means the vessel in which alkali cellulose pulp is treated with carbon disulphide;
(d) ”dumping” means transfer of cellulose xanthate from a dry churn to a dissolver;
(e) ”efficient exhaust draught” means localised ventilation by mechanical means for the removal of any gas or vapour, so as to prevent it from escaping into the air of any place in which work is carried on. No draught shall be deemed to be efficient if it fails to control effectively any gas or vapour generated at the point where such gas or fume originates;
(f) ”fume process” means any process in which carbon disulphide or hydrogen sulphide is produced, used or given off;
(g) ”life belt” means a belt made of leather or other suitable material which can be securely fastened round the body with a suitable length of rope attached to it, each of which is sufficiently strong to sustain the weight of a man;
(h) ”protective equipment” means apron, goggles, face shields, footwear, gloves and overalls made of suitable materials.
2. Ventilation -
(1) In all workrooms where a fume process is carried on, adequate ventilation by natural or mechanical means shall be provided so as to control, in association with other control measures, the concentration of carbon-di-sulphide and hydrogen sulphide in the air of every work environment within the permissible limits.
(2) Notwithstanding the requirements in sub-paragraph (1) an efficient exhaust draught shall be provided and maintained to control the concentration of carbon-di-sulphide and hydrogen sulphide in the air at the following locations :-
(a) dumping hoppers of dry churns;
(b) spinning machines;
(c) trio rollers and cutters used in steple fibre spinning;
(d) gydro-extractors for yarn cakes;
(e) after treatment processes; and
(f) spin baths.
(3) In so far as the spinning machines and trio rollers and cutters used in staple fibre spinning are concerned, they shall be, for the purpose of ensuring the effectiveness of the exhaust draft to be provided as required in sub-paragraph (1), enclosed as fully as practicable and provided with suitable shutters in sections to enable the required operations to be carried out without giving rise to undue quantities of carbon-di-dulphide escaping to the work environment.
(4) No dry churn shall be opened after completion of reaction without initially exhausting the residual vapours of carbon-di-sulphide by operation of a suitable and efficient arrangement for exhausting the vapours which shall be continued to be operated as long as the churn is kept opened.
(5) Whenever any ventilation apparatus normally required for the purpose of meeting the requirements in sub-paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) is ineffective, fails, or is stopped for any purpose whatsoever, all persons shall be required to leave the work areas where the equipment or processes specified in the above said sub-paragraphs are in use, as soon as possible, and in any case not later than 15 minutes after such an occurrence.
(6) (a) All ventilating systems provided for the purposes as required in sub-paragraphs (2), (3) and (4) shall be examined and inspected once every week by a responsible person. It shall be thoroughly examined and tested by a competent person once In every period of 12 months. Any defects found by such examinations or test shall be rectified forthwith.
(b) A register containing particulars of such examinations and tests, and the state of the systems and the repairs or alterations (if any) found to be necessary shall be kept and shall be available for inspection by an Inspector.
3. Waste from spinning machines- Waste yarn from the spinning machines shall be deposited in suitable containers provided with close fitting covers. Such waste shall be disposed off as quickly as possible after decontamination.
4. Lining of dry churns - The inside surface of all dry churns shall be coated with a non-sticky paint so that cellulose xanthate will not stick to the surface of the churn. Such coating shall be maintained in good condition.
5. Air monitoring -
(1) To ensure the effectiveness of the control measures, monitoring of carbon-di-sulphide and hydrogen sulphide in air shall be carried out once atleast in every shift and the record of the results so obtained shall be entered in a register specially maintained for the purposes.
(2) For the purpose of the requirement in sub-paragraph (1), instantaneous gas detector tubes shall not be used. Samples shall be collected over a duration of not less than 10 minutes and analysed by an approved method. The locations where such monitoring is to be done shall be as directed by the Inspector.
(3) If the concentration of either carbon disulphide or hydrogen sulphide exceeds the permissible limits for such vapour or gas as laid down in Rule 123A, suitable steps shall be taken for controlling the concentrations in air of such contaminants. A report of such occurrences shall be sent to the Chief Inspector forthwith.
6. Prohibition to remain in fume process room - No person during his intervals for meal, or rest shall remain in any room wherein fume process is carried on.
7. Prohibition relating to employment of young persons - No young person shall be employed or permitted to work in any fume process or in any room in which any such process is carried on.
8. Protective equipment - (1)The occupier shall provide and maintain in good condition protective equipment as specified in the Table for use of persons employed in the processes referred to therein.
Overalls, face-shields, gloves and footwear – all made of suitable material
Suitable aprons, gloves and footwear
Process involving or likely to involve contact with viscose solution
Suitable gloves and footwear
.Handling of sulphur
Suitable chemical goggles
Any other process involving contact with hazardous chemicals
Protective equipment as may be directed by the Chief Inspector by an order in writing
(2) A suitable room, rooms or lockers shall be provided exclusively for the storage of all protective equipment supplied to workers and no such equipment shall be stored at any place other than the room, rooms or lockers so provided.
9. Breathing apparatus - (1)There shall be provided in every factory where fume process is carried on, sufficient supply of -
(a) breathing apparatus,
(b) oxygen and a suitable appliances for its administration, and
(c) life belts.
(2) (a) The breathing apparatus and other appliances referred to in sub-paragraph (1) shall be maintained in good condition and kept in appropriate locations so as to be readily available.
(b) The breathing apparatus and other appliances referred to in clauses (a) and (b) of sub-paragraph (1) shall be cleaned and disinfected at suitable intervals and thoroughly inspected once every month by a responsible person.
(c) A record of the maintenance of the condition of the breathing apparatus and other appliances referred to in sub-clause (1) shall be entered in a register provided for that purpose which shall be readily available for inspection by an Inspector.
(3) Sufficient number of workers shall be trained and periodically retrained in the use of breathing apparatus and administering artificial respiration so that at least 2 such trained persons would be available during all the working hours in each room in which fume process is carried on.
(4) Breathing apparatus shall be kept properly labelled in clean, dry, light-proof cabinets and if liable to be affected by fumes, shall be protected by placing them in suitable containers.
(5) No person shall be employed to perform any work for which breathing apparatus is necessary to be provided under sub-paragraph (1) unless he has been fully instructed in the proper use of that equipment.
(6) No breathing apparatus provided in pursuance of sub-paragraph (1) which has been worn by a person shall be worn by another person shall be worn by another person unless it has been thoroughly cleaned and disinfected since last being worn and the person has been fully instructed in the proper use of that equipment.
10. Electric fittings - All electric fittings in any room in which carbon-di-sulphide is produced, used or given off or is likely to be given off into the work environment, other than a spinning room, shall be of flame-proof construction and all electric conductors shall either be enclosed in metal conduits or be lead-sheathed.
11. Prohibition relating to smoking, etc. - No person shall smoke or carry matches, fire or naked light or other means of producing a naked light or spark in a room in which fume process is carried on.
A notice in the language understood by the majority of the workers shall be posted at prominent locations in the plant prohibiting smoking and carrying of matches, fire or naked light or other means of producing naked light or spark into such rooms.
Provided that fire, naked light or other means of producing a naked light of spark may be carried on in such room only when required for the purposes of the process itself under the direction of a responsible person.
12. Washing and bathing facilities - (1)There shall be provided and maintained in a clean state and in good repair for the use of all workers employed and in the processes covered by the schedule, adequate washing and bathing places having a constant supply of water under cover at the rate of one such place for every 25 persons employed.
(2) The washing places shall have standpipes placed at intervals of not less than one metre.
(3) Not less than one half of the total number of washing places shall be provided with bathrooms.
(4) Sufficient supply of clean towels made of suitable material shall be provided.
Provided that such towels shall be supplied individually for each worker if so ordered by the Inspector.
(5) Sufficient supply of soap and nail brushes shall be provided.
13. Rest Room -
(1) A rest room shall be provided for the workers engaged in doffing operations of filament yarn spinning process.
(2) Such rest room shall be provided with fresh air supply and adequate seating arrangement.
14. Cautionary notice and instructions - (1)The following cautionary notice shall be prominently displayed in each fume process room.
1. Carbon disulphide (CS2) and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) which may be present in this room are hazardous to health.
2. Follow safety instructions.
3. Use protective equipment and breathing apparatus as and when required.
4. Smoking is strictly prohibited in this area.”
This notice shall be in a language understood by the majority of the workers and displayed where it can be easily and conveniently read. If any worker is illiterate, effective steps shall be taken to explain carefully to him the contents of the notice so displayed.
(2) Arrangements shall be made to instruct each worker employed in any room in which a fume process is carried on regarding the health hazards connected with their work and the preventive measures and methods to protect themselves. Such instructions shall be given on his first employment and repeated periodically.
(3) Simple and special instructions shall be framed to ensure that effective measures will be carried out in case of emergency involving escape of carbon-di-sulphide and hydrogen sulphide. Those instructions shall be displayed in the concerned areas and workers shall be instructed and trained in the actions to be taken in such emergencies.
15. Medical facilities and records of examinations and tests - (1) The occupier of every factory to which this schedule applies, shall-
(a) employ a qualified medical practitioner for medical surveillance of the workers employed therein whose employment shall be subject to the approval of the Chief Inspector of Factories; and
(b) provide to the said medical practitioner all the necessary facilities for the purpose referred to in clause (a).
(2) The record of such examinations carried out by the medical practitioner shall be maintained in a separate, register approved by the Chief Inspector of Factories, which shall be kept readily available for inspection by the Inspector.
16. Medical examination by Certifying Surgeon - (1) Every worker employed in the processes specified in paragraph 1 shall be examined by a Certifying Surgeon within 15 days of his first employment. Such examinations shall include skin test for dermatitis and no worker shall be allowed to work after 15 days of his first employment in the factory unless certified fit for such employment by the Certifying Surgeon.
(2) Every worker employed in a manganese process shall be re-examined by a Certifying Surgeon at least once in every three calendar months and such examination shall, wherever the Certifying Surgeon considers appropriate, include all the tests in sub-paragraph (1).
(3) The Certifying Surgeon after examining a worker, shall issue a Certificate of Fitness in Form 23. The record of examination and re-examinations carried out shall be entered in the Certificate and the Certificate shall be kept in the custody of the manger of the factory. The record of each examination carried out under sub-paragraph (1) and (2) , including the nature and the results of these test, shall also be entered by the Certifying Surgeon in a health register in Form 24.
(4) The Certificate of Fitness and the health register shall be kept readily available for inspection by the Inspector.
(5) If at any time the Certifying Surgeon is of the opinion that a worker is no longer fit for employment in the said processes on the ground that continuance therein would involve special danger to the health of the worker, he shall make a record of his findings in the said certificate and the health register. The entry of his findings in those documents should also include the period for which he considers that the said person is unfit to work in the said process shall be provided with alternate placement facilities unless he is fully incapacitated in the opinion of the Certifying Surgeon , in which case the person affected shall be suitably rehabilitated.
(6) No person who has been found unfit to work as said in sub-paragraph (5) shall be re-employed or permitted to work in the said processes unless the Certifying Surgeon, after further examination, again certifies him fit for employment in those processes.
17. Exemptions - If in respect of any factory, the Chief Inspector is satisfied that owing to the exceptional circumstances or infrequency of the processes or for any other reason, all or any of the provisions of this schedule is not necessary for the protection of the workers in the factory, the Chief Inspector may be a certificate in writing which he may in his discretion revoke at any time, exempt such factory from all or any of such provisions subject to such conditions, if any, as he may specify therein.