Chapter - IV

SAFETY

 

57.             Further safety precautions

58.             Register of workers employed for work on or near machinery in motion

59.             Employment  of  young persons on dangerous machines

60.             Hoists and lifts.

61.             Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles

62.             Pressure vessels or plant

63.             Water-sealed gasholder

64.             Excessive weights

65.             Protection of eyes

66.             Minimum  dimensions  of manholes

67.             Exemptions

68.             Fire protection

69.             Safety Officers.

70.             Buildings and structures

71.             Machinery and plant.

72.             Methods of work.

73.             Stacking and storing of materials, etc.

74.             Ovens and Driers

75.             Shipbuilding and ship-repairing

76.             Reaction vessels and kettles

77.             Examination of eye sight of certain workers

78.             Railways in factories

79.             Safety Committee            -   Deleted

80.             Quality of Personal Protective Equipment

81.             Protective Equipments

82.             Thermic fluid heaters

 

 
Further precautions prescribed under sub-section (2) of section 21

57.       Further safety precautions

Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 21 in regard to the fencing of machines, the further precautions specified in the schedules annexed  hereto shall apply to the machines noted in each schedule.

SCHEDULE I

Textile Machinery except Machinery used in Jute Mills :

1.   Application:

The requirements of this schedule shall apply to machinery in factories engaged in the manufacture or processing of  textiles other than jute textiles.  The schedule  would  not  apply  to  machinery  in factories engaged  exclusively  in  the  manufacture of synthetic fibres.

2.   Definitions:

      For the purpose of this schedule -

(a)         "Calender" means a set of heavy rollers mounted on vertical side frames and arranged to pass cloth between them.  Calenders  may have two to ten rollers, or bowls, some of which can be heated.

(b)         "Embossing  calender" means a calender with two or  more  rolls,  one of which is engraved for producing figure effects of various  kinds on a fabric

(c)         "Card" means a machine consisting of cylinders of various  sizes   -  and in certain cases flats - covered with card  clothing  and  set  in  relation to each so that fibres in staple form  may  be separated  into  individual  relationship.  The  speed  of  the cylinders and their direction of relation varies.  The  finished product is delivered as a silver. Cards of different types are : the revolving flat card, the roller and clearer card, etc.

(d)         "Card  clothing" means the material with which the  surfaces  of  the  cylinder,  deffer, flats, etc. of a card  are  covered  and consists of a thick  foundation material made of, either textile fabrics  through  which  are pressed many  fine  closely  spaced specially bent wires, or mounted saw toothed wire.

(e)         "Comber" means a machine for combing fibres of cotton wool, etc. 

(f)           The  essential parts are device for feeding forward a fringe  of  fibres at regular intervals and an arrangement of combs or pins,  which, at the right time, pass through the fringe.  All  tangled fibres,  short fibres, and nips are removed and the long  fibres are laid parallel.

(g)         "Combing machinery" means a general classification of machinery including combers, silver lap machines, ribbon lap machines, and  gill boxes, but excluding cards.

(h)         Rotary staple "cutter" means a machine consisting of one or more  rotary  blades  used for the purpose of cutting  textile  fibres  into staple lengths.

(i)           "Garnett machine" means any of a number of types of machines for opening hard twisted waste of wool, cotton, silk,  etc. Essentially, such machines consist of a licker-in; one or  more cylinders,  each having a competent worker and  stripper  rolls; and a fancy roll and deffer. The action of such machines  is  somewhat like that a wool card, but it is much more  severe in  that the various rolls are covered with garnett wire instead of card clothing.

(j)            "Gill  box"  means  a  machine used in  the  worsted  system  of manufacturing yarns. Its  function is to  arrange  fibres  in  parallel  order.  Essentially, it consists of a  pair  of  feed  rolls  and a series of followers where the followers move  at  a faster surface speed and perform a combing action.

(k)         "In  running  rolls" means any paid of rolls  or  drums  between  which there is a "nip".

(l)            "Interlocking  arrangement"  means a device  that  prevents  the setting  in  motion  of a dangerous part of  a  machine  or  the machine  itself  while the guard cover or the door  provided  to safeguard  against  danger is open or unlocked, and  which  will also  hold the guard, cover or door closed and locked while the machine or the dangerous part is in motion.

(m)       "Kier"  means  a large metal vat, usually a  pressure  type,  in  which fabrics may be boiled out, bleached, etc.

(n)         "Ribbon  lapper" means a machine or a part of a machine used  to prepare  laps  for  feeding a cotton comb;  its  purpose  is  to provide a uniform lap in which the fibres have been straightened as much as possible.

(o)         "Sliver lapper" means a machine or a part of a machine in  which a  number  of parallel card slivers are drafted  slightly,  laid  side  by side in a compact sheet, and wound into  a  cylindrical  package.

(p)         "Loom"  means  a machine for effecting the interlocking  of  two   series of yarns crossing one another at right angles.  The  warp  yarns  are  wound on a warp beam and pass  through  headles  and reeds.   The filling is shot across in a shuttle and settled  in  place by reeds and slay, and the fabric is wound on a cloth beam.

(q)         "Starch  mangle"  means a mangle that is used  specifically  for starching cotton goods.  It commonly consists of two large rolls and  a shallow open vat with several immersion rolls.  The vat  contains the starch solution.

(r)           "Water  mangle" means a calender having two or more  rolls  used  for squeezing water from fabrics before drying.  Water  mangles  also  may be used in other ways during the finishing of  various fabrics.

(s)         "Mule" means a type of spinning frame having a head stock and  a  carriage as  its  two  main  sections. The  head  stock is stationary. The carriage is movable and it carries the spindles which draft and spin the roving into yarn.  The carriage extends over the whole width of the machine and moves slowly toward  and away from the head stock during the spinning operation.

(t)           "Nip"  is  the danger zone between two rolls or drums  which  by  virtue  of  their positioning and movement create a nipping  hazard.

(u)         "Openers   and  pickers"  means  a  general  classification   of   machinery which includes breaker pickers, intermediate  pickers,    finisher  pickers,  single  process  pickers,  multiple  process pickers, willow machines, card and picker waste cleaners, thread extractors,  shredding  machines, roving waste  openers, shoddy pickers, bale breakers, feeders, vertical openers,  lattice  cleaners,  horizontal  cleaners,  and  any  similar   machinery equipped   with  either  cylinders,  screen  section,   calender section, rolls, or beaters used for the preparation of stock for  further processing.

(v)          "Paddler" means a trough for a solution and two or more  squeeze rools  between which cloth passes after being passed  through  a   mordant or dye bath.

(w)        "Plaiting machine" means a machine  used to lay cloth into folds  of regular length for convenience of subsequent process or use.

(x)          "Roller printing machine" means a machine consisting of a  large central cylinder, or pressure bowl, around the lower part of the perimeter of which is placed a series of engraved color  rollers  (each having a color through), a furnisher  roller,  doctor  blades, etc.  The machine is used for printing fabrics.

(y)          "Continuous  bleaching range" means a machine for  bleaching  of cloth in rope or open-width form with the following arrangement. The cloth, after wetting out, pass through a squeeze roll into a saturator  containing a solution of caustic soda and then to  an enclosed J-Box.  A V-shaped arrangement is attached to the front part of the J.Box for uniform and rapid saturation of the  cloth  with steam before it is packed down the J.Box.  The cloth, in  a  single strand rope form, passes over a guide roll down the first arm  of the "V" and up the second.  Steam is injected  into  the  "V"  at  the upper end of the second arm so that  the  cloth  is rapidly saturated with steam at this point.  The J-Box  capacity  is  such  that cloth will remain hot for a  sufficient  time  to complete  the  securing  action.  It then  passes  a  series  of washers  with a squeeze roll in between.  The cloth then  passes through a second set of saturator, J-Box and washer, where it is treated  with the peroxide solution. By slight  modification  of the  form of the unit, the same process can be applied to  open-width cloth.

(z)          "Mercerizing range" means a 3-bowl mangle, a tenter frame, and a   number of boxes for washing and securing.  The whole set is in a straight line and all parts operate continuously. The  combination is used to saturate the cloth with sodium  hydrozide stretch it while saturated, and washing out most of the  caustic before releasing tension.

(aa)    "Sanforizing  machine"  means a machine consisting  of  a  large steam-heated cylinder, and endless, thick, wollen felt blanket which is  in close contact with the cylinder for  most  of  its perimeter,  and  an electrically heated shoe which  presses  the cloth  against  the blanket while the latter is in  a  stretched condition as it curves around feed-in roll.

(bb)    "Shoaring machine" means a machine used for shoaring cloth. Cutting action is provided by a number of steel blades spirally  mounted  on the roller.  The  roller  rotates  in close contact with a fixed ledger blade.  There may be from one to six such rollers on a machine.

(cc)     “Singeing  machine"  means a machine which comprises  of  a heater  roller, plate, or an open gas flame.  The cloth  or yarn  is  rapidly  passed over a roller  or  the  plate  or through  the open gas flame to remove fuzz or hairiness  by  burning.

(dd)    "Slasher" means a machine used for applying a size mixture to warp  yarns.  Essentially, it consists of a  stand  for holding section beans, a size box, one or more  cylindrical dryers or an enclosed hot air dryer, and a beaming and  for winding the yarn on the loom beams.

(ee)    "Tenter  frame"  means  a machine for  drying  cloth  under tension. it essentially  consists of a  pair  of  endless  traveling  chains  fitted  with clips  of  fine  pins  and carried  on  tracks.  The  cloth is  firmly  held  at  the salvages  by  the  two chains which diverge  as  they  move forward so that the cloth is brought to the desired width.

(ff)         "Warper" means a machine for preparing and arranging the yarns intended for thw warp of a fabric,  specifically,  a  beam warper.

3.   General safety requirements:

(i).  Every   textile  machine  shall  be  provided  with   individual mechanical  or electrical means for starting and  stopping  such machines.  Belt shifter on machines driven by belts and shafting should  be  provided with a belt shifter lock of  an  equivalent  positive locking device

(ii). Stopping and starting handles or other controls shall be of such design  and so positioned as to prevent the operator’s  hand  or fingers from striking against any moving part of any other  part of the machine.

(iii) All  belts,  pulleys, gears, chains, sprocket wheels, and other dangerous  moving parts of machinery which either form  part  of the  machinery  or  are used in association with  it,  shall  be  securely guarded.

4.   Openers and pickers:

(1)       In all opening or picker machinery, beaters and other  dangerous parts  shall  be  securely fenced by suitable guards  so  as  to  prevent  contact with them.  Such guards and doors or covers  or openings  giving access to any dangerous part of  the  machinery shall be provided with interlocking arrangement.

Provided that in the case of doors or covers of openings  giving access to any dangerous part, other than better covers, instead of the interlocking arrangement, such openings may be so  fenced by  guards which prevent access to any such dangerous  part  and  which  is either kept positively locked in position or fixed  in  such a manner that it cannot be removed without the use of  hand  tools.

(2)   The feed rools on all opening and picking machinery  shall  be covered  with a guard designed to prevent  the  operator  from  reaching the nip while the machinery is in operation.

(3)   The  lap forming rollers shall be fitted with a guard  or  cover which  shall  prevent  access to nip at the intake  of  the  lap  roller  and fluted roller as long as the weighted rack is  down. The  guard or cover shall be so locked that it cannot be  raised   until the machine is stopped, and the machine cannot be  started until the cover or guard is closed.

Provided  that  the foregoing provision shall not apply  to  the machines equipped with automatic lap forming devices.

Provided further any such machine equipped with an automatic lap forming  device  shall  not be used  unless  the  automatic  lap forming device is in efficient working order.

5.         Cotton cards:

(1)   All cylinder doors shall be secured by inter-locking arrangement which shall prevent the door being opened until the cylinder has  ceased to revolve and shall render it impossible to restart  the  machine until the door has been closed.

Provided that the latter requirement in respect of the automatic locking  device  shall  not apply while  stripping  or  grinding operations are carried out;

Provided further that stripping or grinding operations shall  be carried  out  only by specially trained  adult  workers  wearing tight  fitting  clothing whose names have been recorded  in  the register  prescribed in this behalf as required  in  sub-section (1) of section 22.

(2)   The licker-in shall be guarded so as to prevent access to the dangerous parts.

(3)   Every card shall be equipped with an arrangement that would  enable the card cylinder to be driven by power during stripping/grinding operations without having to either shift the main belt to the fast pulley of the machine or to dismantle  the interlocking mechanism.  Such an arrangement shall be used only for stripping or grinding  operations.

6.         Garnett  machines:

(1)   Garnett  licker-ins  shall be enclosed.

(2)   Garnett fancy rolls shall be enclosed by guards.  These shall be installed in a way that keeps worker rolls reasonably accessible for removal or adjustment.

(3)   The  underside of the garment shall be guarded by a screen  mesh or other form of enclosures to prevent access.

7.         Gill boxes:

(1)   The  feed  end shall be guarded so as to prevent  fingers being caught in the pins of the intersecting fallers.

(2)   All  nips of in-running rolls shall be guarded by  suitable  nip guards conforming to the following specifications.

Any opening which the guard may permit when fitted in  position shall  be  so  restricted with respect to the  distance  of  the opening  from  any  nip point through that opening  and  in  any circumstances the maximum width of the opening shall not  exceed  the following :

                              Distance of opening from nip point       Maximum width of opening
                                  -----------------------------------                       --------------------------
                                    0 to 38 mm                                                      6 mm
                                    39 to 63 mm                                                  10 mm
                                    64 to 88 mm                                                  13 mm
                                    89 to 140 mm                                               15 mm
                                    141 to 165 mm                                              19 mm
                                    166 to 190 mm                                              22 mm
                                    191 to 215 mm                                              32 mm

8.         Sliver and ribbon lappers (cotton):

The calender drums and  the lap  spool shall be provided with a guard to prevent  access  to the nip between the in-running rolls.

9.         Speed frames:

Jack box wheels at the head stock shall be guarded and the guard shall have interlocking arrangement.

10.       Spinning  mules

Wheels  on spinning mule  carriages  shall  be provided with substantial wheel guards, extending to within 6 mm of the rails.

11.       Warpers

Swiveled double-bar gates shall be installed  on  all warpers  operating  in excess of 410  meters/min.   These  gates shall  have interlocking arrangement, except for the purpose  of  inching or jogging:

Provided  that the top and bottom bare of the gate shall  be  at least  1.05  and  0.53 meters high from  the  floor  or  working platform, and the gate shall be located 38 mm from the  vertical tangement to the beam head.

12.       Slashers

(1)               Cylinder dryers:

(a)   All  open nips of in-running rolls shall be guarded  by  nip guards conforming to the requirements in paragraph 7

(b)   When slashers are operated by control levers, these  levers shall  be connected to a horizontal bar or  treadle  located not  more  than  170  cm above  the  floor  to  control  the operation from any point.

(c)   Slashers operated by push button control shall have stop and start  buttons  located  at each end  of  the  machine,  and  additional buttons located both sides of the machine at  the size box and the delivery end.  If calender rolls are  used,  additional  buttons shall be provided at both sides  of  the  machine  at points near the nips, except when slashers are equipped with an enclosed dryer as in paragraph (b).

            (2)       Enclosed hot air dryer:

(a)               All open nips of the top squeezing rollers shall be guarded by nip guards conforming to the requirements in paragraph 7 

(b)               When  slashers are operated by contro levers,  these levers shall  be connected to a horizontal bar or  treadle  located not more than 170 cm. above the floor control the  operation  from any point.

(c)               Slashers operated by push-button control shall have stop and start  buttons located at  each end  of  the  machine  and additional stop and start buttons located on both sides  of   the matters.

13.    Looms

(1)         Each  loom  shall be equipped with suitable guards designed to minimize the danger from flying shuttles.

(2)         Beam  weights for tension in beam shall be of such  construction  so as to prevent it falling during its adjustment.

14.    Valves of kiers, tanks, and other containers:

(1)       Each valve controlling the flow of steam, injurious gases or liquids into a kier or any other tank or container into which a person is likely to enter in connection with a process, operation maintenance or for any other purpose,  shall be  provided with a suitable locking arrangement to enable the  said  person  to  lock the valve securely in the closed  position  and retain  the  key  with him before entering  the  kier,  tank  or  container.

(2)       Wherever  boiling tanks, caustic tanks and any other containers from which liquids which  are hot,  corrosive  or  toxic  may overflow or splash, are so located that the operator cannot  see the  contents from the floor or working area emergency shut  off valves  which  can  be controlled from a point  not  subject  to danger of splash shall be provided to prevent danger.

15.       Shearing  machines

All revolving blades on  shearing  machines shall  be guarded so that the opening between the cloth  surface and the bottom of the guard will not exceed 10 mm.

16.       Continuous  bleaching range (cotton and rayon)

The nip of  all in-running rolls on open-width bleaching machine rolls shall  be protected  with a guard to prevent the worker from being  caught at the nip.  The guard shall extend across the entire length  of  the nip.

17.       Mercerizing range (piece goods)

(1)   A stopping device shall be provided at each end of the machine.

(2)   A  guard shall be provided at each end of the frame between  the in-running chain and the clip opener.

(3)   A  nip guard shall be provided for the in-running rolls  of  the  mangle   and  washers  and  the  guard  shall  conform  to   the requirements in paragraph 7(2).

18.       Tender frames

(1)   A stopping device shall be provided at each end of the machine.

(2)   A  guard shall be provided at each end of the machine  frame  at  the in-running chain and clip opener.

19.       Paddlers

Suitable nip guards conforming to the requirement  in paragraph  7(2)  shall be provided to all  dangerous  in-running  rolls.

20.       Centrifugal extractors

(1)    Each  extractor shall be provided with a guard for  the  basket,  and the guard shall have inter-locking arrangement.

(2)    Each extractor shall be equipped with a mechanically/electrically operated brake to apply quickly stop the basket when the power driving the basket is shut off.

21.       Squeezer or wringer extractor, water mangle, starch mangle, back washer (worsted yarn) crabbing machines, and decating machines:

All in-running rolls shall be guarded with nip guards conforming to the requirements in paragraph 7(2).

22.       Sanforizing and palmer machine

(1)   Nip guards shall be provided on all accessible in-running  rolls and these shall conform to the requirements in paragraph 7(2).

(2)   Access from the sides to the nips of in-running rolls should  be fenced by suitable side guards.

(3)   A  safety trip rod, cable or wire centre cord shall be  provided  across the front and back of all palmer cylinders extending  the  length  of the face of the cylinder.  It shall  operate readily whether  pushed level at which the operator stands and shall  be readily accessible.

23.       Rope washers

(1)   Splash guards shall be installed on all rope washers unless the machine is so designed as to prevent the water or  liquid from splashing the operator, the floor, or working surface.

(2)   A  safety trip rod, cable or wire centre cord shall be  provided  across  the  front and back of all rope  washers  extending  the length  of  the  face of the washer. It  shall  operate  readily whether  pushed or pulled.  This safety trip shall be  not  more than  170 cm. above the level on which the operator  stands  and shall be readily accessible.

24.       Laundry washer tumbler or shaker

(1) Each  drying  tumbler, each double cylinder  shaker  or clothes tumbler and each washing machine shall be equipped  with an inter-locking arrangement which will prevent the power operation of the inside cylinder when the outer door on the case or shall is  open and which will from being opened without  shutting  off the  power and the cylinder coming to a stop.  This  should  not prevent  the movement of the inner cylinder by means of  a  hand operated mechanism or an inching device.

(2) Each  closed barrel shall also be equipped with  adequate means  for  holding  open the doors or covers of the  inner  and  outer cylinders or shells while it is being loaded or unloaded.

25.       Printing machine (roller type)

(1)     All  in-running rolls shall be guarded by nip guards  conforming to the requirement in paragraph 7(2).

(2)     The  engraved  roller gears and the large crown wheel  shall  be guarded.

26.       Calendars

The nip at the in-running side of the rolls shall be  provided with a guard extending across the entire length of  the nip  and  arranged to prevent the fingers of  the  workers  from being  pulled in between the rolls or between the guard and  the rolls,  and  so constructed that the cloth can be  fed  into  the rolls safely.

27.       Rotary staple cutters

The cutter shall be protected by a guard to prevent hands reaching the cutting zone.

28.       Plaiting  machines

 Access to the trap between the  knife  and card bar shall be prevented by a guard.

29.       Hand  baling machine

An angle iron handle-stop guard shall  be installed at right angle to the frame of the machine.  The  stop guard  shall be so designed and so located that it will  prevent the  handle from traveling beyond the vertical position  should the handle slip from the operator’s hand when the pawl has  been released from the teeth of the take-up gear.

30.       Flat-work  ironer

Each flat-work or cellar  ironer  shall  be equipped  with  a safety bar or other guard  across  the  entire front  of the feed or first pressure rolls so arranged that  the striking  of  the bar or guard by the hand of  the  operator  or other  person  will stop the machine.  The guard shall  be  such  that  the operator or other person cannot reach into  the  rolls  without  removing  the guard.  This may be  either  in  vertical guard on all sides or a complete cover.  If a vertical guard  is  used, the distance from the floor or working platform to the top  of guard shall be not less than 1.83 meters.

 

SCHEDULE II

Cotton Ginning

Line  Shaft:

The  line  shaft or  second  motion  in  cotton  ginning factories,  when below floor level, shall be completely enclosed  by  a continuous  wall or un-climbable fencing with only so many  openings  as are necessary for access to the shaft for removing cotton seed,  cleaning and oiling; and such openings shall be provided with gates or doors  which shall be kept closed and locked.
 

SCHEDULE III
Woodworking Machinery

1.         Definitions:

            For the purposes of this schedule -

(a)   "Woodworking  machine"  means a circular saw,  band  saw,  planning  machine,  chain  mortising  machine or  vertical  spindle  moulding  machine operating on wood or cork;

(b)   "Circular saw" means a circular saw working in a bench (including a rack bench), but does not include a pendulum or similar saw ration;

(c)   "band saw" means a band saw, the cutting portion of which rubs in a  vertical direction but does not include a log saw or band  re-sawing machine; and

(d)   "planning  machine"  means a machine for overhand planning  or  for thickening or for both operations.

2.         Stopping and starting device:

An efficient stopping and  starting device shall be provided on every woodworking machine.  The control of  this  device shall be in such a position as to be  readily  and conveniently operated by the person in charge of the machine.

3.         Space  around  machines:

The space surrounding  every  woodworking machine in motion shall be kept free from obstruction.

4.         Floors:

The floor surrounding every woodworking machine shall be maintained in good and level condition, and shall not be allowed to become slippery, and as far as practicable shall be kept free  from chips or other loose material.

5.         Training and supervision:

(1)    No person shall be employed at a woodworking machine unless he  has  been sufficiently trained to work that class of machine, or  unless he  works  under  the adequate supervision of a person  who has a thorough knowledge of the working of the machine.

(2)    A  person who is being trained to work a woodworking machine  shall be fully and carefully instructed as to the dangers of the  machine and  the precautions to be observed to secure safe working  of  the machine.

6.         Circular saws: 

Every circular saw shall be fenced as follows :-

(a)    behind and in direct line with the saw there shall be riving knife, which shall  have  a smooth surface, shall be  strong,  rigid and easily adjustable,  and  shall  also  conform  to  the following conditions :

1.            the  edge  of the knife nearer the saw shall form an arc  of  a  circle  having  a  radius of not exceeding the  radius  of  the  largest saw used on the bench

2.            the  knife shall be maintained as close as practicable,  having  regard to the nature of work being  done  at  the time, and at the level of the bench table the distance  between the front edge of the knife and the teeth of the saw shall not exceed 12 millimeters; and

3.            for an saw of a diameter of less than 60 centimeters, the knife shall  extend  upwards  from  the  bench  table  to  within  25 millimeters of the top of the saw, and for a saw of a  diameter 60  centimeters  or over shall extend upwards  from  the  bench  table to a  height of at least 23 centimeters;

(b)       the  top  of  the  saw shall be covered by a strong and easily adjustable guard, with a flange at the side of the saw farthest from the fence.  The guard shall be kept so adjusted that the said flange shall below the roots of the teeth of the saw, The guard shall extend from the top of the riving knife to a point as low as practicable at the cutting edge of the saw; and

(c)        the part of the saw below the bench table shall be protected by two plates of metal or other suitable material, one on each side of the  saw;  such plates shall not be more than 15 centimeters apart,  and  shall extend from the axis of the saw outwards to a distance of not less than 5 centimeters beyond the teeth of the saw.  Metal plates,  if not bended, shall be of thickness of least 2.5 millimeters, or,  if beaded, be of a thickness of at least 1.25 millimeter.

7.         Push  sticks

A push stick or other suitable appliance  shall  be provided  for  use  at every circular saw  and  at  every  vertical spindle  moulding  machine to enable the work to  be  done  without unnecessary risk.

8.         Band saws

            Every band saw shall be guarded as follows :-

a)     both  sides of the bottom pulley shall be completely encased by sheet or expanded metal or other suitable material;

b)     the front of the top pulley shall be covered with sheet or expanded metal or other suitable material; and

c)      all portions of the blade shall be enclosed or otherwise securely guarded, except the portion of the blade between the bench table and the top guide.

9.         Planning machines:

(1)   A  planning machine (other than a planning machine which is  mechanically fed) shall not be used for overhand planning unless  it is fitted with a cylindrical cutter block.

(2)   Every planning machine used for overhand planning shall be provided with a “bridge” guard  capable of covering the full length and breadth of the cutting slot in the bench, and so constructed as  to be easily adjusted both in a vertical and horizontal direction.

(3)   The  feed  roller of every planning machine  used  for  thickening, except the combined machine for overhead planning and thickening, shall be provided with an efficient guard.

10.       Vertical spindle moulding machines:

(1)   The  cutter  of  every vertical spindle moulding  machine  shall  be guarded  by the most efficient guard having regard to the nature  of the work being performed.

(2)   The wood being moulded at a vertical spindle moulding machine shall,  if  practicable, be held in a jig or holder of such construction  as to reduce as far as possible the risk of accident to the worker.

11.       Chain  mortising  machines:

The chain  of  every  chain  mortising  machine  shall  be  provided with a guard which  shall  enclose  the cutters as far as practicable.

12.       Adjustment  and  maintenance  of  guards:

The  guards and other appliances required under this schedule shall be :

a)     maintained in an efficient state;

b)     constantly kept in position while the machinery is in motion; and

c)      so  adjusted  as to enable the work to be done  without  unnecessary  risk.

13.       Exemption:

Paragraphs  6,8,9 and 10 shall not apply to  any  wood working  machine  in respect of which it can be  proved  that  other safeguards  are  provided,  maintained and  used  which  render  the machine  as safe as it would be if guarded in the manner  prescribed  in this schedule.


SCHEDULE IV

Rubber Mill

1.         Installation  of  machines:

Mills  for  breaking  down,  cracking, grating,  mixing,  refining and warming rubber or  rubber  compounds  shall  be  so installed that the top of the front roll is  not  less than 105 centimeters above the floor or working level :

Provided  that in existing installations where the top of the  front roll  is below this height a strong, rigid distance-bar guard  shall be fitted across the front of the machine in such position that  the operator cannot reach the nip of the rolls.

2.         Safety devices:

(1)   Rubber mills shall be equipped with:

a)     hoppers  so  constructed or guarded that it is  impossible  for  the  operators  to  come into contact in any manner with the nip  of  the rolls; or

b)     horizontal  safety-trip rods or tight wire cables across both  front and  rear, which will, when pushed or pulled, operate instantly to disconnect the power and apply the brakes, or to reverse the rolls. Safety-trip  rods or tight wire cables on rubber mills  hall  extend  across  the  entire  length of the face of the rolls  and  shall  be  located not more than 175 centimeters above the floor or  working  level.

      Safety-trip rods and tight wire cables on all rubber mills shall be examined and tested daily in the presence of the manager or other responsible person and if any defect is disclosed such examination and test the mill shall not be used until such defect  has been remedied.


 
SCHEDULE V

Centrifugal Machines

1.         Definition:

      "Centrifugal machines" include centrifugal  extractors separators and driers.

2.         Every part of centrifugal machine shall be:

(a) of good design and construction and of adequate strength;
(b) properly maintained; and
(c) examined thoroughly by a competent person at regular intervals.

3.         Inter-locking guard for drum or basket

1)     The cage housing the rotating drum or basket of every centrifugal machine shall be provided with a strong lid.  The design and construction of the cage as well as lid should be such that no access is possible to the drum or basket when the lid is closed.

2)     Every centrifugal machine shall be provided with an efficient inter-locking device that will effectively prevent the lid referred to in sub-paragraph (1) from being opened while the drum or  basket  is  in  motion and prevent the drum or basket being  set  in  motion while the lid is in the open position.

4.         Braking  arrangement:

Every centrifugal machine shall  be  provided with  an effective braking arrangement capable of bringing the  drum or basket to rest within as short as a period of time as  reasonably practicable after the power is cut off.

5.         Operating  speed:

No centrifugal machine shall be  operated  at  a speed in excess of the manufacturer’s rating which shall be  legibly   stamped  at easily visible places both on the inside of  the  basket and on the outside of the machine casing.

6.         Exceptions:

Sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 3, paragraphs 4  and  5 shall  not  apply in case of top lung machines or  similar  machines used in the sugar manufacturing industry.


 
SCHEDULE VI

Power Press

1.         Application:

The Schedule shall apply to all types of power presses including press brakes, except when used for working hot metal.

2.         Definition:

            For the purpose of this Schedule –


(a)       "approved" means approved by the Chief Inspector

(b)               "fixed  fencing"  means fencing provided for the tools of a power press being fencing which has no moving part associated with or dependent upon the mechanism of a power and includes that part of  a closed tool which acts as a guard

(c)               "power press" means a machine used in metal or other industries  for moulding, pressing, blanking raising drawing and similar purposes

(d)               "safety device" means the fencing and any other safeguard  provided  for the tools of a power press.

3.         Starting   and  stopping  mechanism:

The  starting  and   stopping mechanism shall be provided with a safety stop so as to prevent over running of the press or descent of the ram during tool setting, etc.

4.         Protection of tool and die:

(1)   Each press shall be provided with a fixed guard with a slip plate on  the underside enclosing the front and all sides of the tool.

(2)   Each die shall be provided with a fixed guard surrounding its  front and sides, and extending to the back in the form of a tunnel through  which the pressed article falls to the rear of the press.

(3)   The design, construction and mutual position of the guards referred to in (1) and (2) shall be such as to preclude the  possibility  of the worker’s hand or fingers reaching the danger zone.

(4)   The  machine shall be fed through a small aperture at the bottom  of the  die guard, but a wider aperture may be permitted for second  or subsequent operations if feeding is done through a chute.

(5)   Not  withstanding anything contained in sub-clauses (1) and  (2)  an automatic  or an inter-locked guard may be used in place of a fixed guard, but where such guards are used they shall be maintained in an efficient  working condition and if any guard develops a  defect  of   the guard is removed.

5.         Appointment of persons to prepare power presses for use:

(1)       Except  as provided in sub-paragraph (4), no person shall  set,  re-set, adjust  or try out the tools on a power press  or  install  or adjust  any safety device thereon, being installation or  adjustment  preparatory to production of die proving, or carry out an inspection and test of any safety device thereon required by paragraph 8 unless he -

(a)   has attained the age of eighteen;

(b)   has been trained in accordance with the sub-paragraph (2); and has  been appointed by the occupier of the factory to carry out those duties  in respect of the class or description of  power press or the class or description of safety device to which the power press or safety device (as the case may be) belongs;  and  the name of every such person shall be entered in a register in Form 9.

 (2)      The training  shall  include  suitable  and  sufficient   practical  instruction in the matter in relation to each type of power press and safety  device  in respect of which it is proposed  to  appoint  the   person being trained

6.         Examination and testing of power presses and safety devices:

(1)   No  power  press  or safety device shall be taken into  use  in  any factory  for the first time in that factory, or in case of a  safety device  for  the first time on any power press, unless it  has  been thoroughly examined and tested, in the case of a safety device, when in position on the power press in connection with which it is to  be used.

(2)   No power press shall be used unless it has been thoroughly  examined and  tested by a competent person within the  immediately  preceding period of twelve months.

(3)   No power press shall be used unless every safety device (other  than  fixed  fencing) thereon has within the immediately preceding  period if six months when in position on that power press, been  thoroughly examined and tested by a competent person.

(4)   The  competent person carrying out an examination and test under  the foregoing provisions shall make a report of the examination and test containing the following particulars and every such report shall be kept readily available for inspection :

(a)   name of the occupier of the factory;

(b)   address of the factory;

(c)   identification  number or mark sufficient to identify the power or the safety device

(d)   date  on  which the power press or the safety device was first taken into use in the factory;

(e)   the date of each periodical thorough examination carried out  as per requirements of sub-paragraph (2) above;

(f)     particulars  of any defects effecting the safety working of the power press or the safety device found at any such thorough examination and steps taken to remedy such defects.

7.         Defects disclosed during a thorough examination and tests:

(1)               Where any defect is disclosed in any power press or in  any  safety device  by any examination and test under paragraph 6  and  in  the opinion  of  the competent person carrying out the  examination  and test, either –

(a)               the  said  defect  is  a  cause of  danger  to  workers  and  in consequence  the power press or safety device (as the  case  may be)  ought  not  to  be used until  the  mild  defect  has  been  remedied; or

(b)               the  said defect may become a cause of danger to workers and  in consequence  the power press or safety device (as the  case  may  be) ought not to be used after expiration of a specified  period unless the said defect has been remedied such  defect shall, as soon as possible after the completion  of the  examination  and  test,  be  notified  in  writing  by  the  competent person to the occupier of the factory and, in the case of  defect falling within clause (b) of this sub-paragraph such notification shall include the period within which, in  the  opinion  of  the  competent person, the defect ought to be remedied.

(2)               In every case where notification has been given under this paragraph, a copy of the report made under paragraph 6(4) shall  be sent  by the competent person to the inspector for the  area  within  fourteen days of the completion of the examination and test

(3)               any such defect is notified to the occupier in  accordance with  the foregoing  provisions of this paragraph the power press or safety device (as the case may be) having the said defect  shall  not  be  used

a)     in  the  case  of a defect falling within  clause(a)  of  sub-paragraph (1) until the said defect has been remedied; and

b)     in the case of defect falling within clause (b) of sub-paragraph  (1), after the expiration of the said defect has been remedied.

(4)               As soon as is practicable after any defect of which notification has been given under sub-paragraph (1) has been remedied, a record shall be  made  by or on behalf of the occupier stating  the  measures  by which and the date on which the defect was remedied.

8.         Inspection and test of safety devices:

(1)               No  power press shall be used after the resetting or adjustment  of the tools thereon unless a person appointed or authorised for the purpose under Paragraph 5 has been inspected and tested every  safety device thereon while it is in position on the said power press :

Provided that an inspection, test and certificate as aforesaid shall not be required where any adjustment of the tools has not caused  or resulted in any alteration to or disturbance of any safety device  on  the  power  press  and if, after the adjustment of  the  tools,  the safety devices remain, in the opinion of such a person as aforesaid,   in efficient working order.

(2)               Every  power  press and every safety device thereon while it  is  in position on the said power press shall be inspected and tested by  a trained person every day.

9.         Defects disclosed during an inspection and test:

(1)               Where  it  appears to any person as a result of any  inspection  and test carried out by him under paragraph 8 that any necessary  safety device is not in position or is not properly in position on a  power press  or  that any safety device which is in position  on  a  power press  is not in his opinion suitable, he shall notify the manager forthwith.

(2)               Except as provided in sub-paragraph(3) where any defect is disclosed in a safety device by any inspection and test under paragraph 8,  the person carrying out the inspection  and  test  shall notify the manager forthwith.

(3)               Where any defect in a safety device is the subject of a notification in  writing  under  paragraph 7 by virtue of which the  use  of  the safety device may be continued during a specified period without the said  defect having been remedied, the requirement in  sub-paragraph  (2) of this paragraph shall not apply the said defect until the said period has expired.

10.       Identification of power presses and safety devices:

For the purpose of  purpose  of identification every power press  and  every  safety device  provided  for the same shall be  distinctively  and  plainly  marked.

11.       Training  and  instructions to operators:

The  operators  shall  be trained  and instructed in the safe method of work  before  starting work on any power press.

12.       Exemptions:

(1)   If in respect of any factory, the Chief Inspector is satisfied  that owing  to the circumstances or infrequency of the processes  or  for any other reason, all or any of the provisions of this Schedule  are not  necessary  for the protection of the workers  employed  on  any power  press  or any class or description of power press or  in  the  factory, the Chief Inspector may by a certificate in writing  (which he may in his discretion revoke at any time), exempt  such  factory from  all or any of such provisions subject to such  conditions,  if  any, as he may specify therein.

(2)   Where such exemption is granted, a legible copy of the  certificate,   showing  the  conditions  (if  any) subject to  which  it  has  been granted, shall be kept posted in the factory in a position where  it  may be conveniently read by the persons employed.


 
SCHEDULE VII

Shears, Slitters and Guillotine Machines

1.         Definition:

For the purpose of this schedule 

(a)       "guillotine" means a machine ordinarily equipped with straight, bevel-edged blade operating vertically against a stationary resisting edge and used for cutting metallic or  non-metallic substances

(b)       "shears" or "shearing machine" means a machine ordinarily  equipped with  straight, bevel-edged  blades operating  vertically  against resisting  edges,  or with rotary, overlapping cutting  wheels,  and  used for shearing metals or non-metallic substances

(c)        "slitter"  or "slitting machine" means a machine ordinarily  equipped  with  circular  disc-type knives, and used for trimming  or  cutting into  metal  or non-metallic substances or for  slitting  them  into  narrow strips; for the purpose of this Schedule, this term  includes  bread  or other food slicers equipped with rotary knives or  cutting discs.

2. Guilloting and Shears:

(1)                     Where practicable, a barrier metal guard of adequate strength  shall be provided at the front of the knife, fastened to the machine frame and  shall be so fixed as would prevent any part of  the  operator’s body  reach  the descending blade from above, below or  through  the barrier guard or from the side


Provided  that  in case of machines used in the paper printing  and allied industries, where a fixed barrier metal guard is not suitable on  a account of height and volume of the material being fed,  there shall be provided suitable  starting  devices which   require simultaneous  action  of  both  the hands  of  the  operator  or  an automatic  device which will remove both the hands of  the  operator from the danger zone at every descent of the blade

(2)                     At  the  back  and  of such machines, an  inclined  guard  shall  be provided over which the slit pieces would slide and be collected  at a  safe distance in a manner as would prevent a person at  the  back from reaching the descending blade.

(3)                     Power-driven  guillotine cutters, except continuous feed trimmers, shall be equipped with

(a)         starting  devices which require the simultaneous action of  both hands to start the cutting motion and of at least one hand on  a control during the complete stroke of the knife; or

(b)         an  automatic guard which will remove the hands of the  operator from the danger zone at every descent of the blade, used in conjunction  with  one-hand  starting  devices  which  require  two distinct  movements of the device to start the  cutting  motion, and  so  designed as to return positively  to  the  non-starting position after each complete cycle of the knife.

(4)          Where two or more workers are employed at the same time on the  same power-driven  guillotine cutter equipped with two-hand control,  the device  shall be so arranged that each worker shall be  required  to use  both  hands  simultaneously on the safety  trip  to  start  the cutting  motion, and at least one hand on a control to complete  the cut.

(5)                     Power-driven  guillotine  cutters, other  than  continuous trimmer, shall be provided, in addition to the brake or other stopping mechanism, with an emergency device which will prevent the  machine from  operating  in  the  event of failure of  the  brake  when  the starting mechanism is in the non-starting position

            3.   Slitting Machines:

(1)               Circular disc-type knives on machines for cutting metal and leather, paper, rubber, textiles, or other non-metallic substances shall,  if  within reach of operators standing on the floor or working level, be provided with guards enclosing the knife edges at all times as  near as practicable to the surface of the material, and which may either

(a) Automatically   adjust  themselves  to  the  thickness of the material; or

(b)  be  fixed  or manually adjusted so that the  space  between  the  bottom of the guard and the material will not exceed 6 mm  (1/4  in.) at any time.

(2)       Portions  of  blades underneath the tables or  benches of slitting machines shall be covered by guards.

4.   Index cutters and Vertical Paper Slotters:

Index cutters, and other machines for cutting strips from the ends of books, and for  similar operations,  shall be provided with fixed guards, so  arranged  that the fingers of the operators cannot come between the blades and  the tables.

5.  Corner  Cutters:

Corner cutters used in the manufacture  of  paper boxes, shall be equipped with

(a)               suitable guard, fastened to the machines in front of the knives and provided with slots or perforations to afford visibility of the operations; or

(b)               other guards equally efficient for the protection of the fingers of the workers.

6.   Band  Knives:

Band wheels on band knives, and all portions  of  the blades  except working side between the sliding guide and the  table on  vertical  machines, to between the wheel  guards  on  horizontal machines,  shall be completely enclosed with hinged guards of  sheet metal  not  less  than  1 mm (0.04 in.) in  thickness  or  of  other material of equal strength.

Register prescribed under sub-section (1) of Section 22

 

58.                   Register of workers employed for work on or near machinery in motion

 

 In every factory a register shall be maintained in Form 9 in which the name and other particulars of every such worker as may be employed for such examination or operation as referred to in the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 21 shall be entered.

 

 

Rule prescribed under sub-section (2) of Section 23

 

59.                   Employment  of  young persons on dangerous machines

 

            The  machines specified in sections 28, 29 and 30 and the machines mentioned below  shall be deemed to be of such dangerous character that young persons shall  not work at them unless the provisions of sub-section (1)  of  section 23 are complied with :

 

(a) Power presses other than hydraulic presses.

(b) Milling machines used in the metal trades.

(c) Circular saws.

(d) Platen printing machines.

(e) Guillotine machines.

 

Rule framed under section 28

 

60.       Hoists and lifts. -

 

(1)                     A register shall be maintained to record particulars of examination of hoists and lifts and shall give particulars as shown in Form 10.

(2)                     In pursuance of the provisions of sub-section (4) of section 28, in respect of any class or description of hoist or lift specified in the first column of the following schedule, the requirements of section 28 specified in the second column of the said schedule and set opposite to that class or description of hoist or lift shall not apply.

 

SCHEDULE

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Class or Description of                  Requirement which shall not

        hoist or lift applies                                            apply-

                            (1)                                                           (2)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Hoists or lifts mainly used             Sub-section 1(b) in so far as 

       for raising materials for                 it requires a gate at the

       charging blast furnaces or            bottom landing; sub-section

       lime kilns.                                        (d); sub-section 1(e).

 

       Hoists not connected with            Sub-section 1(b) in so far as

       mechanical power and which       it requires the hoistway or

       are not used for carrying              liftway enclosure to be so

        persons.                                        constructed as to prevent any

                                                               person or thing from being

                                                               trapped between any part of

                                                               the hoist or lift and any fixed

                                                               structure or moving part,

                                                               sub-section 1(e).

       -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Rule prescribed under sub-section (2) of Section 29

 

61.       Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles

 

(1)         No lifting machine and no chain, rope or lifting tackle,  except  a fibre rope or fibre rope sling, shall be taken into use in any  factory  for the first time in that factory unless it  has  been tested  and  all  parts  have  been  thoroughly  examined  by  a competent person and a certificate of such a test and examination specifying the safe working load or loads and signed by the person making the test and the examination, has been obtained and is kept available for inspection.

 

(2)         Every jib-crane so constructed that the safe working load may be varied by the raising or lowering of the jib, shall have attached thereto either an automatic indicator of safe working loads or an automatic jib angle indicator and a table indicating the safe working loads at corresponding inclinations of the jib or corresponding radii of the load.

 

(3)         A table showing the safe working loads of every kind and size of  chain,  rope  or lifting tackle in use, and, in the case of a multiple sling, the safe working loads at different  angles of the legs, shall be posted in the store in  which  the chains, ropes  or lifting tackles are kept, and in  prominent  positions on the premises, and no chain, rope or lifting tackle not  shown  in the table shall be used :

 

         Provided that this sub-rule shall not apply in respect of such lifting tackle if the safe working load thereof, or in the case of a multiple sling, the safe working load at different angles of the legs, is plainly marked upon it.

 

(4)         The  register  to be maintained under clause  (a)(iii)  of  sub-section (1) of section 29 of the Act shall contain the following  particulars and shall be kept readily available for  inspection

 

(a)         Name of occupier of factory.

(b)         Address of factory.

(c)         Distinguishing number or mark, if any, and description sufficient to identify the lifting machine, chain, rope, or lifting tackle.

(d)         Date when the lifting machine, chain, rope or lifting tackle was first taken into use in the use in the factory.

(e)         Date and number of the certificate relating to any test and examination made under sub-rules (1) and (9) together with the name and address of the person who issued the certificate.

(f)           Date of each periodical thorough examination made under clause (a)(iii) of sub-section (1) of section 29 of the Act and sub- rule (8) and by whom it was carried out.

(g)         Date of annealing or other heat treatment of the chain and other lifting tackle made under sub-rule (7) and by whom it was carried out.

(h)         Particulars of any defects affecting the safe working load found at any such thorough examination or after annealing and of the steps taken to remedy such defects.

 

(5)         All rails on which a travelling crane moves and every track on which the carriage of transported or runway moves shall be of proper size and adequate strength and have an even running surface; and every such rail or track shall be properly laid, adequately supported and properly maintained.

 

(6)         To provide access to rail tracks of overhead travelling cranes suitable passage-ways of at least 50 centimetres width with toe boards and double hand rails 90 centimetres high shall be provided alongside, and clear of, the rail tracks of overhead travelling cranes, such that no moving part of the crane can strike persons on the ways, and the passage-way shall be at a lower level than the crane track itself.  Safe  access  ladders   shall  be  provided at suitable intervals to  afford  access  to these passage-ways, and from passage-ways to the rail tracks

 

Provided that the Chief Inspector may, for reasons to be specified in writing, exempt any factory in respect of any overhead travelling crane from the operation of any provision of this sub-rule subject to such conditions as he may specify.

 

(7)         All chains and lifting tackles except a rope sling shall, unless they have been subjected to such other heat treatment as may be approved by the Chief Inspector of Factories, be effectively annealed under the supervision of a competent  person at the following intervals :- (a) all  chains, slings, rings, hooks, shackles and swivels used in connection  with  molten metal or molten slag or when they are made of 12.5 millimetres bar or smaller, once at least in every six months; (b) all other chains, rings, hooks, shackles and swivels in  general  use, once at least in every twelve months;

 

         Provided that chains and lifting tackle not in frequent use shall, subject to the Chief Inspector’s approval, be annealed only when necessary.  Particulars of such annealing shall be entered in a register prescribed under sub-rule (4).

 

(8)         Nothing  in the  foregoing  sub-rule (7)  shall  apply  to  the  following classes of chains and lifting tackles :-

 

(a)         chains made of malleable cast iron ;

(b)         plate link chains;

(c)         chains,  rings, hooks, shackles and swivels made of steel or  of   any non-ferrous metal;

(d)         pitched chains, working on sprocket or pocketed wheels;

(e)         rings, hooks, shackles and swivels permanently attached to pitched chains, puller blocks or weighing machines;

(f)           hooks and swivels having screw threaded parts or ball bearing or  other case hardened parts;

(g)         socket shackles secured to wire ropes by white-metal capping; and

(h)         bordeaux connections :

 

         Provided that such chains and lifting tackles shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person once at least in every twelve months, and particulars entered in the register kept in accordance with sub-rule (4).

 

(9)         All lifting machines, ropes, chains and lifting tackles, except a fibre rope or fibre sling, which have been lengthened, altered or repaired by welding or otherwise, shall, before being again taken into use, be adequately re-tested and re-examined by a competent person and certificate of such test and examination be obtained, and  particulars entered in  the register  kept  in accordance with sub-rule (4).”

 

(10)    No person under 18 years of age and no person who is not sufficiently competent and reliable shall be employed as driver of a lifting machine whether driven by mechanical power or otherwise, or to give signals to a driver.

 

(11)    Where  the Chief Inspector of Factories is satisfied that  in  a  factory  due  to shut down or for any other reasons it is not practicable to maintain a minimum distance of 6 meters between the person employed or working on or near the wheel track of a travelling crane and the crane, he may on the request of the manager reduce the distance to such an extent as he may consider necessary and also prescribe further precautions  indicating appointment of suitable number of supervisors to ensure the safety  of the persons while they are employed or working on  or near the track.

 

Rules 62 and 63 prescribed under sub-sections (2) & (3) of section 31

 

62.       Pressure vessels or plant

 

(1)               Interpretation.- In this rule

 

(a)         “design  pressure” means the maximum pressure that  a  pressure vessel or plant is designed to withstand safely when operating normally;

(b)         “maximum  permissible  working  pressure”  means  the   maximum  pressure at which a pressure vessel or plant is permitted to  be operated  or  used  under this rule and  is  determined  by  the technical requirements of the process;

(c)         “plant” means a system of piping that is connected to a pressure vessel  and  is  used to contain a gas, vapour  or  liquid  under  pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure, and includes the pressure vessel;

(d)         “pressure  vessel” means a vessel  that may  be used for containing, storing, distributing, transferring,  distilling, processing or otherwise handling any gas, vapour or liquid under  pressure greater than the atmospheric pressure and includes  any  pipeline fitting or other equipment attached thereto or used  in  connection therewith; and

(e)         “competent person” means a person who is, in the opinion of the Chief  Inspector,  capable  by  virtue  of  his  qualifications, training  and experience, of conducting a  thorough  examination   and  pressure tests, as required, on a  pressure  vessel  or  plant, and of making a full report on its condition.

 

(2)               Exceptions.- Nothing in this rule shall apply to

 

(a)       x          x          x            x           x          x    x

 

(b)    vessels made of ferrous materials having an internal operating pressure not exceeding 1 kilogram per square centimetre;

(c)     steam  boilers, steam and feed pipes and their  fittings  coming    under the purview of Indian Boilers Act, 1923;

(d)    metal bottles or cylinders used for storage  or  transport of compressed gases or liquified or dissolved gases under  pressure covered by the Gas Cylinder Rules, 1981 framed under the  Indian   Explosives Act, 1884;

(e)    vessels  in which internal pressure is due solely to the  static  head of liquid;

(f)      vessels  with a nominal water capacity not exceeding 500  litres  connected   in  a water-pumping system containing  air  that  is   compressed to serve as a cushion;

(g)    vessels for nuclear energy application;

(h)     refrigeration  plant  having  a capacity of 3 tons  or  less  of   refrigeration in 24 hours; and

(i)      working cylinders of steam engines or prime movers, feed  pumps   and  steam traps; turbine casings; compressor  cylinders;  steam separators  or dryers; steam strainers; steam  de-super-heaters; oil separators; air receivers for fire sprinkler  installations; air receivers of monotype machines provided the maximum  working  pressure of the air receiver does not exceed 1.33 kilograms  per  square centimetre and the capacity 85 litres; air receivers  of electrical circuit breakers; air receivers of electrical relays; air vessels on pumps, pipe coils, accessories of  instruments  and  appliances such as  cylinders  and  piston   assemblies  used for operating relays and interlocking  type of guards; vessels with liquids subjected to static head only; and  hydraulically  operating  cylinders  other  than  any   cylinder  communicating with an air loaded accumulator.

 

(3)               Design and construction.- Every pressure vessel or plant used in  a factory –

 

(a)    shall be properly designed on sound engineering practice;

(b)    shall be of good construction, sound material, adequate  strength and free from any patent defects; and

(c)     shall be properly maintained in a safe condition:

 

Provided that the pressure vessel or plant in respect of the design and construction of which there is an Indian standard or a standard of the country of manufacture or any other law or regulation in force, shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the said standard, law or regulation, as the case may be, and a certificate thereof shall be obtained from the manufacturer or from the competent person which shall be kept and produced on demand by an Inspector.

(4)               Safety devices.- Every pressure shall be fitted with

 

(a)         a suitable safety valve or other effective pressure  relieving device of adequate  capacity  to ensure that  the maximum  permissible working pressure of the pressure vessel shall not be exceeded.  It shall be set to operate  at  a  pressure  not exceeding the maximum permissible working pressure and when more than one protective device is provided, only one of the devices need be set to operate at the maximum  permissible  working  pressure and the additional device shall be set to discharge at a  pressure not more than 5 per cent in excess of  the  maximum  permissible working pressure;

 

(b)         a  suitable pressure gauge with a dial range not less  than  1.5 times  the maximum permissible working pressure, easily  visible and designed to show at all times the correct internal  pressure and marked with a prominent red mark at the maximum  permissible working pressure of the pressure vessel;

 

(c)         a  suitable nipple and globe valve connected for  the  exclusive  purpose  of  attaching a test pressure gauge for checking the accuracy of the pressure gauge referred to in clause (b) of this sub-rule;

 

(d)         a suitable stop valve or valve by which the pressure vessel may be isolated from other pressure vessels or plant or source of supply of  pressure.  Such a stop valve or valves shall be located as close to the pressure vessel as possible and shall be easily accessible; and

 

(e)         a suitable drain cock or valve at the  lowest part of the pressure vessel for the  discharge of  the  liquid  or  other  substances that may collect in the pressure vessel:

 

Provided that it shall be sufficient for the purpose of this sub-rule if the safety valve or pressure relieving device, the pressure gauge and the stop valve are mounted on a pipeline immediately adjacent to the pressure vessel and where there is a range of two or more similar pressure vessels served by the same pressure lead, only one set of such mountings need be fitted on the pressure lead immediately adjacent to the range of pressure vessels, provided they cannot be isolated.

(5)               Pressure reducing devices

 

(a)         Every pressure vessel which is designed for a working pressure less than the pressure at the source of supply, or less than the pressure which can be obtained in the pipe connecting the pressure vessel with any other source of supply, shall be fitted with a suitable pressure reducing valve or other suitable automatic device to prevent the maximum permissible working pressure of the pressure vessel being exceeded.

 

(b)    To further protect the pressure vessel in the event of failure of the reducing valve or device, at least one safety valve having a capacity sufficient to release all the steam, vapour or gas without undue pressure rise as determined by the pressure at the source of supply and the size of the pipe connecting the source of supply, shall be fitted on the low pressure side of the reducing valve.

 

(6)               Pressure vessel or plant being taken into use

 

(a)    No  new pressure vessel or plant shall be taken into use in  the factory after coming into force of this rule unless it has  been  hydrostatically  tested by a competent person at a  pressure at least 1.3 times the design pressure, and no pressure vessel or plant which has been previously used or has remained isolated or idle for a period exceeding 2 months or which has undergone alterations or repairs shall be taken into use in a factory unless it has been thoroughly examined by a competent person externally and  internally,  if practicable, and has been hydrostatically tested by the competent person at a  pressure which shall  be 1.5  times  the  maximum  permissible working  pressure :

 

Provided, however, that the pressure vessel or plant which is so designed and constructed that it cannot be safely filled with water or liquid or is used in service when even some traces of water cannot be tolerated, shall be pneumatically tested at a pressure not less than the design pressure or the maximum permissible working pressure as the case may be.

 

Provided further that the pressure vessel or plant, which is lined with glass, shall be tested hydrostatically or pneumatically as required at a pressure not less than the design pressure or maximum permissible working pressure as the case may be.

 

Design pressure shall be not less than the maximum permissible working pressure and shall take into account the possible fluctuations of pressure during actual operation.

 

(b)    No pressure vessel or plant shall be used in a factory unless there has been obtained from the maker of the pressure vessel or plant or from the competent person a certificate specifying the design pressure or maximum permissible working pressure thereof, and stating the nature of tests to which the pressure vessel or plant and its fittings (if any) have been subjected, and every pressure vessel or plant so used in a factory shall be marked so as to enable it to be identified as to be  the pressure  vessel or plant to which the certificate relates and the certificate shall be kept available for perusal by the Inspector.

 

(c)     No pressure vessel or plant shall be permitted to be operated or used at a pressure higher than its design pressure, or the maximum permissible working pressure as shown in the certificate.

 

(7)       In-service test and examinations

a)      Every pressure vessel or plant in service shall  be  thoroughly examined by a competent person

 

(i)   externally, once in every period of six months;

(ii)  internally, once in every period of twelve months :

 

Provided that if by reason of the construction of a pressure vessel or plant, a thorough internal examination is not possible, this examination may be replaced by a hydrostatic test which shall be carried out once in every period of two years.

      

Provided further that for a pressure vessel or plant in continuous process which cannot be frequently opened, the period of internal examination may be extended to four years; and

 

(iii)  hydrostatically tested once in every period of four years :

 

Provided that in respect of a pressure vessel or plant with thin walls, such as sizing cylinder made of copper or any other non- ferrous metal, periodic hydrostatic test may be dispensed with subject to the condition that the requirements laid down in sub- rule (8) are fulfilled.

 

 Provided further that when it is impracticable to carry out thorough external examination of any pressure vessel or plant every six months as required in sub-clause (i) of this clause, or if owing to its construction and use a pressure vessel or  plant cannot be hydrostatically tested as required in sub-clause   (ii) and (iii) of this clause, a thorough external examination   of  the pressure vessel or plant shall be carried out  at  least   once in every period of two years, and at least once in every period of four years a thorough systematic non-destructive test like  ultrasonic  test  for metal thickness or other  defects  of  all   parts the failure of which might lead to eventual rupture of the   pressure vessel or plant shall be carried out.

             

(b)         The pressure for the hydrostatic test to be carried out for the purpose of this sub-rule shall be 1.25 times the design pressure or 1.5 times the maximum permissible working pressure, whichever is less.

 

(8)               Thin walled pressure vessel or plant

(a)    In respect of any pressure vessel or plant of thin walls such as sizing cylinder made of copper or any other non-ferrous  metal, the maximum permissible working pressure shall be reduced at  the  rate  of 5 percent of the original maximum  permissible  working pressure  for every year of its use after the first five  years  and no such cylinder shall be allowed to continue to be used for  more than twenty years after it was first taken into use.

 

(b)    If any information as to the date of construction, thickness of walls, or maximum permissible working pressure is not available, the age of such pressure vessel or plant shall be determined by the competent person in consultation with the Chief Inspector from the other particulars available with the manager.

 

(c)     Every new and second hand pressure vessel or plant of thin walls   to  which repairs likely to affect its strength or  safety  have   been  carried  out, shall be tested before use to at  least  1.5 times its maximum permissible working pressure.

 

(9)       Report by competent person

 

(a)               If during any examination any doubt arises as to the ability  of the pressure vessel or plant to work safely until the next prescribed examination, the competent person shall enter in the prescribed register his observations, findings and conclusions with other relevant remarks with reasons and may authorise the pressure vessel or plant to be used and kept in operation subject to a lowering of maximum permissible working pressure, or to more frequent or special examination or test, or subject to both of these conditions.

 

(b)               A report of every examination or test carried out shall be completed in Form 11 and shall be signed by the person making the examination or test, and shall be kept available for perusal by the Inspector at all hours when the factory or any part thereof is working.

 

(c)               Where the report of any examination under this rule specified any condition for securing the safe working of any pressure vessel or plant, the pressure vessel or plant shall not be used unless the specified condition is fulfilled.

 

(d)               The competent person making report of any  examination  under  this  rule, shall within seven days of the completion  of  the examination, send to the Inspector a copy of the report in every  case  where the maximum permissible working pressure is  reduced or  the examination shows that the pressure vessel or  plant  or  any  part thereof cannot continue to be used with safety  unless certain  repairs  are  carried out or unless  any  other  safety measure is taken.

 

(10)     Application of other laws

 

 

(a)         The requirements of this rule shall be in addition to and without any prejudice to and not in derogation of the requirements of any other law in force.

 

(b)         Certificates or reports of any examination, or test of any pressure vessel or plant to which sub-rules (7) to (9) do not apply, conducted or required to be conducted under any other law in force and other relevant record relating to such pressure vessel or plant, shall be properly maintained as required under the said law and shall be produced on demand by the Inspector.

 

63.       Water-sealed gasholder

 

               (1)        The expression “gasholder” means a water-sealed gasholder, which has
a storage capacity of not less than 141.5 cubic meters.

 

(2)       Every gasholder shall be of adequate material and strength, sound construction and properly maintained.

 

(3)       Where there is more than one gasholder in a factory, every gasholder shall be marked in a conspicuous position with a distinguishing number or letter.

 

(4)       Every gasholder shall be thoroughly examined externally by a competent person at least once in a period of 12 months.

 

(5)       In  the case of gasholder of which any lift has been in use  for  more  than 10 years, the internal state of the sheeting shall, within one year of the coming into operation of these rules  and  thereafter at  least  once in every period of  four  years, be  examined  by a competent person by means of electronic or  other  accurate devices :

 

Provided  that if the Chief Inspector is satisfied that such electronic or other accurate devices are not available, he  may permit  the cutting of samples from the crown and the  sides  of   the holder.

 

Provided further that if the above examination raises a doubt, an internal visual examination shall be made.

 

(6)               All possible steps shall be taken to prevent or minimise ingress of impurities in the gasholder.

 

(7)               No gasholder shall be repaired or demolished except under the direct supervision of a person who, by his training, experience and knowledge of the necessary precautions against risks of explosion and of persons being overcome by gas, is competent to supervise such work.

 

(8)        (a)  All sample discs cut under sub-rule (5) above shall be  kept readily available for inspection.

 

(b)    A permanent register in Form 12 duly signed by the occupier or manager shall be maintained.

 

(c)    The results of examinations by the competent person carried out as required under sub rules (4) and  (5) shall be recorded in Form 13.

 

(d)    A copy of the report in Form 13 shall be kept in the register in Form 12 and both the register and the report shall be readily available for inspection.

 

(9)       The Inspector of Factories shall inspect the gasholder at least once in a period of 12 months.

 

 

Rule prescribed under sub-section (2) of Section 34

 

64.       Excessive weights

 

(1)         No woman or young person shall, unaided by another person, lift, carry or move by hand or on head, any material, article, tool or appliance exceeding the maximum limit in weight set out in the following schedule

 

SCHEDULE

 

            --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                  Persons                              Maximum weight of material,

                                                                 article, tool or appliance

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                  (a) Adult male                ..                55 Kilograms

                  (b) Adult female             ..                30 Kilograms

                  (c) Adolescent male      ..                30 Kilograms

                  (d) Adolescent female   ..               20 Kilograms

                  (e) Male child                  ..              16 Kilograms

                  (f) Female child              ..               14 Kilograms

      --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

(2)               No woman or young person shall engage, in conjunction with others, in lifting, carrying or moving by hand or on head any material, article, tool or appliance, if the weight thereof exceeds the lowest weight fixed by the schedule to sub-rule(1) for any of the persons engaged, multiplied by the number of the persons engaged.

 

Rule prescribed  under section 35

 

65.       Protection of eyes

 

Effective screens or suitable goggles shall be provided  for  the  protection of persons employed  in  or  in  the immediate vicinity of the following processes :-

 

(a)     The processes specified in Schedule I annexed hereto, being processes, which involve risk of injury to eyes from particles or fragments thrown off in the course of the processes.

(b)     The processes specified in Schedule II annexed hereto, being processes, which involve risk of injury to eyes by reason of exposure to excessive light or infrared or ultra-violet radiations.

 

SCHEDULE I

 

1.            Breaking, cutting, dressing or carving of bricks, stone, concrete, slag or similar materials by means of a hammer, chisel, pick or similar hand tool, or by means of a portable tool driven by mechanical power, and the dry grinding of surfaces of any such materials by means of a wheel or disc driven by mechanical power, where, in any of the foregoing cases, particles or fragments are liable to be thrown off towards the face of the operator in the course of the process.

 

2.            Dry grinding of surfaces of metal by applying them by hand to a wheel, disc or band driven by mechanical power, and of surfaces of metal by means of a portable tool driven by mechanical power.

 

3.            Dividing into separate parts of metal, bricks, stone, concrete or similar materials by means of a high speed saw driven by mechanical power or by means of an abrasive cutting-off wheel or disc driven by mechanical power.

 

4.            Turning of metals or articles of metal, where particles or fragments are liable to be thrown off towards the face of the operator in the course of the process.

 

5.            Drilling by means of portable tools, where particles or fragments are liable to be thrown off towards the face of the operator in the course of the process.

 

6.            Welding and cutting of metals by means of an electric, Oxy- acetylene or similar process.

 

7.            Hot fettling of steel castings by means of a flux-injected burner or air torch, and de-seaming of metal.

 

8.            Fettling of metal castings involving the removal of metal, including runners, gates and risers, and removal of any other material during the hours or such fettling.

 

9.            Chipping of metal, and chipping, knocking out, cutting out or cutting off of cold rivets, bolts, nuts, lugs, pins, collars or similar articles from any structure or plant, or from part of any structure or plant, by means of a hammer, chisel punch or similar hand tool, or by means of a portable tool driven by mechanical power.

 

10.       Chipping or scurfing of paint, scale, slag, rust or other corrosion from the surface of metal and other hard materials by means of a hand tool or by a portable tool driven by mechanical power.

 

11.       Breaking of scrap metal by means of a hammer or by means of a tool driven by mechanical power.

 

12.       Routing of metal, where particles or fragments are liable to be thrown off towards the face of the operator in the course of the process.

 

13.       Work with drop hammers and power hammers used in either case for the manufacture of forging, and work by any person not  working with   such   hammers,  whose  work  is  carried  on   in   such circumstances and in such a position that particles or fragments are  liable to be thrown off towards his face during  work  with drop hammers or power hammers.

 

14.       Work at a furnace where there is risk to the eyes from molten metal.

 

15.       Pouring or skimming of molten metal.

 

16.       Work involving risk to the eyes from hot sand being thrown off.

 

17.       Truing or dressing of an abrasive wheel.

 

18.       Handling in open vessels or manipulation of strong acids or dangerous corrosive liquids or materials, and operation, maintenance or dismantling of plant or any part of plant, being plant or part of plant which contains or has contained such acids, liquids or materials, unless the plant or part of plant has been so prepared (by isolation, reduction of pressure, or otherwise), treated, or designed and constructed as to prevent risk of injury.

19.       Any other process wherein there is a risk of injury to eyes from particles or fragments thrown off during the course of the process.

 

SCHEDULE II

 

1.            Welding or cutting of metals by means of an electrical, oxy- acetylene or similar process.

2.            All work on furnaces where there is risk of exposure to excessive light or infrared radiations.

3.            Process such as rolling, casting or forging of metals where there is risk of exposure to excessive light or infrared radiations.

4.            Any other process wherein there is a risk of injury to eyes from exposure to excessive light  or infrared  or  ultraviolet radiations.

 

Rule prescribed under sub section(6) of section 36.

66.       Minimum  dimensions  of manholes

Every chamber, tank, vat, pipe, flue or other confined space, which persons may have to enter and which may contain dangerous fumes to such an extent as to involve risk of the persons being overcome thereby, shall unless there is other effective means of egress, be provided with a manhole which may  be rectangular, oval or circular in shape and which shall

(a)         in the case of a rectangular or oval shape, be not less than 40 centimetres long and 30 centimetres wide; and

(b)         in the  case  of  a  circular  shape,  be  not  less  than  40 centimetres in diameter.

 

Exemptions under section (5) of section 37.

 

67.       Exemptions

 

 The  requirements of sub-section (4) of  section 37 shall not apply to the following processes  carried      on  in  any factory

 

(a)   the operation  of  repairing a water sealed  gasholder  by  the electric welding process, subject to the following conditions :

 

 (i)         the gasholder shall contain only the following gases, separately  or  mixed  at  a pressure  greater  than atmospheric  pressure, namely,  town  gas, coke-oven gas, producer gas,  blast  furnace gas, or gases other than air, used in their manufacture:

              Provided that this exemption shall not apply to any gasholder containing acetylene or mixture of gases to which acetylene has been added intentionally; and

(ii)         welding  shall only be done by the electric welding process  and  shall  be  carried  out  by  experienced  operatives  under  the constant supervision of a competent person;

 

(b)         the  operations of cutting or welding steel or wrought iron  gas  mains  and services by the application of heat, subject  to  the following conditions :

 

(i)          the  main or service shall be situated in the open air, and  it  shall contain only the following gases, separately or mixed at a pressure  greater than atmospheric pressure, namely,  town  gas, coke-oven  gas, producer gas, blast furnace gas, or gases other than air, used in their manufacture

 

(ii)         the  main or service shall not contain acetylene or any  gas  or mixture   of   gases   to  which  acetylene   has   been   added  intentionally;

 

(iii)        the  operation shall be carried out by an experienced person  or  persons and at least 2 persons (including those carrying out the operations)  experienced in work on gas mains and over 18  years  of  age shall be present during the operation;

 

(iv)              the  site of the operation shall be free from any  flammable  or 

            explosive gas or vapour;

 

(v)                where  acetylene gas is used as a source of heat  in  connection with

            an operation, it shall be compressed and contained in a porous

            substances in a cylinder; and

 

(c)               Prior to the application of any flame to the gas main or service, this shall be pierced or drilled and the escaping gas ignited.

(d)                 the operation  of  repairing an oil tank on  any  ship  by  the electric  welding  process  shall be subject  to  the  following  conditions :

 

(i)         the  only oil contained in the tank shall have a flash point  of not  less  than  65.5  degrees centigrade  (close  test)  and  a certificate  to this effect shall be obtained from  a  competent  analyst;

 

(ii)        the analyst’s certificate shall be kept available for inspection by  an  Inspector, or by any person employed or working  on  the ship;

(iii)       the welding operation shall be carried out only on the  exterior surface of the tank at a place (a) which is free from oil or oil leakage  in flammable quantities and (b) which is not less  than 30 centimetres below the nearest part of the surface of the  oil  within the tank; and

(iv)       welding shall be done only by the electric welding and shall  be  carried  out  by  experienced  operatives  under  the   constant supervision of a competent person.

 

Rule prescribed etc. under sections 38 & 41

      

68.       Fire protection

 

(1)               Processes, equipment, plant involving serious explosion and cribbed under serious fire hazards

 

(a)         All processes, storages, equipments, plants, etc. involving serious explosion and flash fire hazard shall be located in segregated buildings where the equipment shall be so arranged that only a minimum number of employees are exposed to such hazards at any one time.

 

(b)         All industrial processes involving serious fire hazard should be located in buildings or work places separated from one another by walls of fire-resistant construction.

 

(c)         Equipment and plant involving serious fire or flash fire hazard shall, wherever possible, be so constructed and installed that in case of fire, they can be easily isolated.

 

(d)         Ventilation ducts, pneumatic conveyors and similar equipment involving a serious fire risk should be provided with flame-arresting or automatic fire extinguishing appliances, or fire-resisting dampers electrically interlocked with heat sensitive/smoke detectors and the air-conditioning plant system.

 

(e)         In all workplaces having serious fire or flash fire hazards, passages between machines, installations or piles of material should be at least 90 com. wide.  For storage piles, the clearance between the ceiling and the top of the pile should not be less than 2m.

 

      (2)       Access for fire fighting

 

(a)         Buildings and plants shall be so laid out and roads, passageways etc. so maintained as to permit unobstructed access for fire fighting.

(b)         Doors, and window openings shall be located in suitable positions on all external walls of the building to provide easy access to the entire area within the building for fire fighting.

 

(3)       Protection against lighting

 

            Protection from lightning shall be provided for :

 

(a)         building in which explosive or highly flammable substances are manufactured, used, handled or stored;

(b)         storage tanks containing oils, paints, or other flammable liquids;

(c)         grain elevators;

(d)         buildings, tall chimneys or stacks where flammable gases, fumes, dust or lint are likely to be present;

(e)         Sub-station buildings and out-door transformers and switchyards.

 

(4)       Precautions against ignition

            Wherever there is danger of fire explosion from accumulation of flammable or explosive substances in air :

(a)               all electrical apparatus shall either be excluded from the area of risk or they shall be of such construction and so installed and maintained as to prevent the danger of their being a source of ignition

(b)               effective measures shall be adopted for prevention of accumulation of static charges to a dangerous extent;

(c)               workers shall wear shoes without iron or steel nails or any other exposed ferrous materials which is likely to cause sparks by friction;

(d)               smoking, lighting or carrying of matches, lighters or smoking materials shall be prohibited;

(e)               transmission belts with iron fasteners shall not be used; and

(f)                 all other precautions, as are reasonably practicable, shall be taken to prevent initiation of ignition fro all other possible sources such as open flames, frictional sparks, overheated surfaces of machinery or plant, chemical reaction and radiant heat.

(5)       Spontaneous ignition.

Where materials are likely to induce spontaneous ignition, care shall be taken to avoid formation of air pocket and to ensure adequate ventilation. The material susceptible to spontaneous ignition should be stored in dry condition and should be in heaps of such capacity and separated by such passage, which will prevent fire.  The materials susceptible to ignition and stored in the open shall be at a distance not less than 10 meters away from process or storage buildings.

(6)       Cylinders containing compressed gas

Cylinders containing compressed gas may only be stored in open if they are protected against excessive variation of temperature, direct rays of sun, or continuous dampness.  Such cylinders shall never be stored near highly flammable substances, furnaces or hot processes.  The room where such cylinders are stored shall have adequate ventilation.

(7)       Storage of flammable liquids

(a)       The quantity of flammable liquids in any workroom shall be the minimum required for the process or processes carried on in such room.  Flammable liquids shall be stored in suitable containers with close fitting covers:

Provided that not more than 20 litres of flammable liquids having a flash point of 21 degrees centigrade or less shall be kept or stored in any workroom.

(b)       Flammable liquids shall be stored in closed containers and in limited quantities in well-ventilated rooms of fire resisting construction, which are isolated from the remainder of the building by firewalls and self-closing fire doors.

(c)        Large quantities of such liquids shall be stored in isolated adequately ventilated building of fire resisting construction or in a storage tanks, preferably underground and at a distance from any building as required in the Petroleum Rules, 1976.

(d)       Effective steps shall be taken to prevent leakage of such liquids into basements, sumps or drains and to confine any escaping liquid within safe limits.

 

(8)       Accumulation of flammable dust, gas, fume or vapour in air or flammable waste material on the floors :

(a)               Effective steps shall be taken for removal or prevention of the accumulation in the air of flammable dust, gas, fume or vapour to an extent, which is likely to be dangerous.

(b)               (b) No waste material of a flammable nature shall be permitted to accumulate on the floors and shall be removed at least once in a day or shift, and more often, when possible. Such materials shall be placed in suitable metal containers with covers wherever possible.

 

(9)               Fire exits

 

 (a)      In this rule

 

(i)     ”horizontal exit” means an arrangement which allows alternative egress from a floor area to another floor at or near the same level in an adjoining building or an adjoining part of the same building with adequate separation; and

(ii)  ”travel distance” means the distance an occupant has to travel to reach an exit.

(b)       An exit may be a doorway, corridor, passageway to an external stairway or to a verandah or to an internal stairway segregated from the rest of building by fire resisting walls which shall provide continuous and protected means of egress to the exterior of a building or to an exterior open space. An exit may also include a horizontal exit leading to an adjoining building at the same level.

(c)               Lifts, escalators and revolving doors shall not be considered as exits for the purpose of this sub-rule.

(d)               In every room of a factory exits sufficient to permit safe escape of the occupants in case of fire or other emergency shall be provided which shall be free of any obstruction.

(e)               The exits shall be clearly visible and suitably illuminated with suitable arrangement, whatever artificial lighting is to be adopted for this purpose, to maintain the required illumination in case of failure of the normal source of electric supply.

(f)                 The exits shall be marked in a language understood by the majority of the workers.

(g)               Iron rung ladders or spiral staircases shall not be used as exit staircases.

(h)               Fire resisting doors or roller shutters shall be provided at appropriate places along the escape routes to prevent spread of fire and smoke, particularly at the entrance of lifts or stairs where funnel or flue effect may be created inducing an upward spread of fire.

(i)                 All exits shall provide continuous means of egress to the exterior of a building or to an exterior open space leading to a street.

(j)                  Exits shall be so located that the travel distance to reach at least one of them on the floor shall not exceed 30 meters.

(k)               In case of those factories where high hazard materials are stored or used, the travel distance to the exit shall not exceed 22.5 metres and there shall be at least two ways of escape from every room, however small, except toilet rooms, so located that the points of access thereto are out of or suitably shielded from areas of high hazard.

(l)                  Wherever more than on exit is required for any room, space or floor, exits shall be placed as remote from each other as possible and shall be arranged to provide direct access in separate directions from any point in the area served.

(m)             The unit of exit width used to measure capacity of any exit shall be 50 cm.  A clear width of 25 cm. shall be counted as an additional half unit.  Clear width of less than 25 cm. shall not be counted for exit width.

(n)               Occupants per unit width shall be 50 for stairs and 75 for doors.

(o)               For determining the exits required, the occupant load shall be reckoned on the basis of actual number of occupants within any floor area or 10 square metres per person, whichever is more.

(p)               There shall not be less than two exits serving every floor area above and below the ground floor, and at least one of them shall be an internal enclosed stairway.

(q)               For every building or structure used for storage only, and every section thereof considered separately, shall have access to at least one exit so arranged and located as to provide a suitable means of escape for any person employed therein, and in any such room wherein more than 10 persons may be normally present, at least two separate means of exit shall be available, as remote from each other as practicable.

(r)                 Every storage area shall have access to at least one means of exit, which can be readily opened.

(s)               Every exit doorway shall open into an enclosed stairway, a horizontal exit on a corridor or passageway providing continuous and protected means of egress.

(t)                 No exit doorway shall be less than 100-cm. in width.  Doorways shall be not less than 200 cm. in height.

(u)               Exit doorways shall open outwards, that is, away from the room but shall not obstruct the travel along any exit.  No door when opened shall reduce the required width of a stairway or landing too less than 90 cm.  Over head or sliding doors shall not be installed for this purpose.

(v)                An exit door shall not open immediately upon a flight of stairs.  A landing at least 1.5 m x 1.5 m in size shall be provided in the stairway at each doorway.  The level of landing shall be the same as that of the floor, which it serves.

(w)              The exit doorways shall be openable from the side, which they serve without the use of a key.

(x)                Exit corridors and passageways shall be of a width not less than the aggregate required width of exit doorways leading from there in the direction of travel to the exterior.

(y)                Where stairways discharge through corridors and passageways, the height of the corridors and passageways shall not be less than 2.4 metres.

(aa)          A staircase shall not be arranged round a lift shaft unless the latter is totally enclosed by a material having a fire-resistance rating not lower than that of the type of construction of the former.

 

(bb)          Hollow combustible construction shall not be permitted.

 

(cc)           The minimum width of an internal staircase shall be 100 cm.

 

(dd)          The minimum width of treads without nosing shall be 25 cm. for an internal staircase.  The treads shall be constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent slipping.

 

(ee)          The maximum height of a riser shall be 19 cm. and the number of risers shall be limited to 12 per flight.

 

(ff)               Handrails shall be provided with a minimum height of 100 cm. and shall be firmly supported.

 

(gg)          The use of spiral staircase shall be limited to low occupant load and to a building of height of 9 metres, unless they are connected to platforms such as balconies and terraces to allow escapees to pause.  A spiral staircase shall be not less than 300 cm. in diameter and have adequate headroom.

 

(hh)           The width of a horizontal exit shall be same as for the exit doorways.

 

(ii)               The horizontal exit shall be equipped with at least one fire door of self-closing type.

 

(jj)                The floor area on the opposite or refuge side of a horizontal exit shall be sufficient to accommodate occupants of the floor areas served, allowing not less than 0.3 square metre per person.  The refuge area shall be provided with exits adequate to meet the requirements of this sub-rule.  At least one of the exits shall lead directly to the exterior or street.

 

(kk)           Where there is difference in level between connected areas for horizontal exit, ramps nor more than 1 in 8 slope shall be provided.  For this purpose steps shall not be used.

 

(ll)                Doors in horizontal exits shall be openable at all times.

 

(mm)      Ramps with a slope of not more than 1 in 10 be substituted for the requirements of staircase.  For all slopes exceeding 1 in 10 and wherever the use is such as to involve danger of slipping, the ramp shall be surfaced with non-slipping material.

 

(nn)           In any building nor provided with automatic fire alarm a manual fire alarm system shall be provided if the total capacity of the building is over 500 persons, or if more than 25 persons are employed above or below the ground floor, except that no buildings where the entire area is undivided and all parts thereof are clearly visible to all occupants.

 

(10)     First-aid fire fighting arrangements

(a)               In every factory there shall be provided and maintained adequate and suitable fire fighting equipment for fighting fires in the early stages, these being referred to as first-aid fire fighting equipment in this rule.

(b)               The types of first-aid fire fighting equipment to be provided shall be determined by considering the different types of fire risks which are classified as follows :

(i)   ”Class A fire” - Fire due to combustible materials such as wood, textiles, paper, rubbish and the like.

 

1.      “Light hazard”   - Occupancies like offices, assembly halls, canteens, rest-rooms, ambulance rooms and the like;

 

2.      “Ordinary hazard” - Occupancies like saw mills, carpentry shop, small timber yards, book binding shops, engineering workshop and the like;

 

3.      “Extra hazard” - Occupancies like large timber yards, godowns storing fibrous materials, flour mills, cotton mills, jute mills, large wood working factories and the like;

 

(ii)               “Class B fire” - Fire  in flammable liquids like oil, petroleum products, solvents, grease, paint, etc.

 

(iii)              “Class C fire” - Fire arising out of gaseous substances.

 

(iv)               “Class D fire” - Fire from reactive chemicals, active metals and the like.

 

(v)                “Class E fire” - Fire involving electrical equipment and delicate machinery and the like.

 

(c)               The number and types of first-aid  fire fighting equipment to be provided for ‘light hazard’ occupancy shall be as given in Schedule I.  For “ordinary hazard or extra hazard” occupancies equipment as given in paragraph 12 shall be provided in addition to that given in Schedule I.

 

(d)               The first-aid fire fighting equipment shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards.

 

(e)               As far as possible the first-aid fire fighting equipment shall all be similar in shape and appearance and shall have the same method of operation.

 

(f)                 All first-aid fire fighting equipment shall be placed in a conspicuous position and shall be readily and easily accessible for immediate use.  Generally, these equipment shall be placed as near as possible to the exits or stair landing or normal routes of escape.

 

(g)               All water buckets and bucket pump type extinguishers shall be filled with clean water.  All sand buckets shall be filled with clean, dry and fine sand.

 

(h)               All other extinguishers shall be charged appropriately in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer.

 

(i)                 Each first-aid fire fighting equipment shall be allotted a serial number by which it shall be referred to in the records.  The following details shall be painted with white paint on the body of each equipment.

1. Serial number;

2. Date of last refilling; and

3. Date of last inspection.

 

(j)                  First-aid fire fighting equipment shall be placed on platforms or in cabinets in such a way that their bottom is 750 mm above the floor level.  Fire buckets shall be placed on hooks attached to a suitable stand or wall in such a way that their bottom is 750 mm above the floor level. Such equipment if placed outside the building, shall be under sheds or covers.

(k)               All extinguishers shall be thoroughly cleaned and re-charged immediately after discharge.  Sufficient refill material shall be kept readily available for this purpose at all times.

(l)                  All first-aid fire fighting equipment shall be subjected to routine maintenance, inspection and testing to be carried out by properly trained persons.  Periodicity of the routine maintenance, inspection and test shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards.

 

(11)     Other fire fighting arrangements

 

(a)               In every factory, adequate provision of water supply for fire fighting shall be made and where the amount of water required in litres per minute, as calculated from the formula A+B+C+D divided by 20 is 550 or more, power driven trailor pumps of adequate capacity to meet the requirement of water as calculated above shall be provided and maintained.

In the above formula -

A         =  the total area in square metres of all floors including

                galleries in all buildings of the factory

B        =   the total area in square metres of all floors and galleries

                including open spaces in which combustible materials

                are handled or stored;

C        =   the total area in square metres of all floors over 15

                metres above ground level; and

D        =   the total area in square metres of all floors of all buildings

                other than those of fire resisting construction.

 

Provided that in areas where the fire risk involved does not require use of water, such areas under B, C or D may, for the purpose of calculation, be halved.

Provided further that where the areas under B, C or D are protected by permanent automatic fire fighting installations approved by any fire association or fire insurance company, such areas may, for the purpose of calculation, be halved.

Provided also that where the factory is situated at not more than 3 kilometres from an established city or town fire service, the pumping capacity based on the amount of water arrived at by the formula above may be reduced by 25%; but no account shall be taken of this reduction in calculating water supply required under clause (a).

(b)               Each trailer pump shall be provided with equipment as per schedule II appended to this rule.  Such equipment shall conform to the relevant Indian Standards.

(c)               Trailer pumps shall be housed in a separate shed or sheds, which shall be sited, closed to a principal source of water supply in the vicinity of the main risks of the factory.

(d)               In factories where the area is such as cannot be reached by man-hauling of trailer pumps within a reasonable time vehicles with towing attachment shall be provided at the scale of one for every four trailer pumps with a minimum of one such vehicle kept available at all times.

(e)               Water supply shall be provided to give flow of water as required under clause (a) for at least 100 minutes.  At least 50% of this water supply or 450,000 litres whichever is less, shall be in the form of static tanks of adequate capacities (not less than 450,000 litres each) distributed round the factory with due regard to the potential fire risks in the factory.  (Where piped supply is provided, the size of the main shall not be less than 15 centimetres diameter and it shall be capable of supplying a minimum of 4,500 litres per minute at a pressure of not less 7 kilograms per square centimetre.

(f)                 All trailer pumps including the equipment provided with them and the vehicles for towing them shall be maintained in good condition and subjected to periodical inspection and testing as required.

 

(12)     Personnel in charge of equipment and for fire fighting, fire drills etc.:

(a)               The first aid and other fire fighting equipment to be provided as required in sub-rules (10) and (11) shall be in charge of a trained responsible person.

(b)               Sufficient number of persons shall be trained in the proper handling of fire fighting equipment as referred to in clause (a) and their use against the types of fire for which they are intended to ensure that adequate number of persons are available for fire fighting both by means of first-aid fire fighting equipment and others.  Such persons shall be provided with clothing and equipment including helmets, belts and boots, preferably gumboots.  Wherever vehicles with towing attachment are to be provided as required in clause (d) of sub-rule (11) sufficient number of persons shall be trained in driving these vehicles to ensure that trained persons are available for driving them whenever the need arises.

(c)               Fire fighting drills shall be held as often as necessary and at least once in every period of 2 months.

(13)          Automatic sprinklers and fire hydrants shall be in addition and not in substitution of the requirements in sub-rules (10) and (11).

(14)          If the Chief Inspector is satisfied in respect of any factory or any part of the factory that owing to the exceptional circumstances such as inadequacy of water supply or infrequency of the manufacturing process or for any other reason, to be recorded in writing, all or any of the requirements of the rules are impracticable or not necessary for the protection of workers, he may by order in writing (which he may at his discretion revoke) exempt such factory or part of the factory from all or any of the provisions of the rules subject to conditions as he may by such order prescribe.

SCHEDULE I

First Aid Fire Fighting Equipments

(1)       The different type of fires and first aid fire fighting equipments suitable for use on them are as under:

 

Class of Fire                                     Suitable type of Appliances

 

A.  Fires in ordinary combus-         Chemical Extinguishers of Soda-

      tibles (wood, vegetable             acid, Gas/expelled water and

      fibres, paper & the like)             anti-freeze types, and water buckets.

 

B.  Fires in flammable liquids,        Chemical Extinguishers of foam,

      paints, grease, solvents            Carbon dioxide and dry powder

      and the like                                  types and sand buckets.

 

C.  Fires in gaseous substances    Chemical Extinguishers of carbon

      under pressure                            dioxide.and dry powder types

 

D.  Fires in Reactive Chemicals,     Special type of dry powder

      active metals and the like           extinguishers and sand buckets

 

E.   Fires in electrical                         Chemical Extinguishers of carbon

       Equipments                                  dioxide.and dry powder type and

                                                             sand buckets.

(2)               One 9 litres water bucket shall be provided for every 100 sq.m. of the floor area or part thereof and one 9 litres water type extinguishers shall be provided to six buckets or part thereof with a minimum of one extinguisher and two buckets per compartment of the building.  Buckets may be dispensed with, provided supply of extinguishers is double that indicated above.

(3)               Acceptable replacements for Water buckets and water type extinguishers in occupancies where Class B fires are anticipated, are as under :

 

Acceptable Replacements

 Buckets   
 of water

                                                       Water type  Extinguishers

 

For one bucket

 

For three buckets

For each 9 ltrs.

(or 2 gallens) Extinguishers

Dry sand

1 bucket

 

3 buckets

-

Carbondioxide Extinguishers

3kg (or 7 lbs.)

 

9kg. (or 20 lbs)

In not less than 2 extinguishers)

9kg. (or 20 lbs)

Dry powder

2kg (or 5 lbs.)

 

5 kg. (or 11 lbs.)

In one or more extinguishers)

5 kg. (or 11 lbs.)

Foam extinguishers

9 lts. (or 2 gallons)

 

9 lts. (or 2 gallons)

9 lts. (or 2 gallons)

 

 (4)      The following provisions shall be complied with where Class E fires are anticipated

 

(a)               For rooms containing electrical transformers, switchgears, motors and/or other electrical apparatus only, not less than two kg.  Dry Powder or Carbon Dioxide type extinguishers shall be provided within 15 m. of the apparatus.

(b)                Where motors and/or other electrical equipment are installed in rooms other than those containing such equipment only, one 5 kg.  Dry Powder or Carbon dioxide Extinguisher shall be installed within 15 m. of such equipment in addition to the requirements of mentioned at (2) and (3) above.  For this purpose the same extinguisher may be deemed to afford protection to all apparatus within 15 m. thereof.

(c)               Where electrical motors are installed on platforms, one 2 kg.  Dry Powder or Carbon Dioxide type extinguisher shall be provided on or below each platform.  In case of a long platform with a number of motors, one extinguisher shall be acceptable as adequate for every 3 motors on the common platform.  The above requirements will be in addition to the requirements mentioned at Item (2) & (3) above.

(5)       The first aid fire fighting equipments shall be so distributed over the entire floor area that a person has to travel not more than 15 m. to reach the nearest equipment.

 

(6)               Selection of sites for the installation of first aid fire fighting equipments

 

(a)               While selecting sites for first aid fire fighting equipments, due consideration shall be given to the nature of the risk to be covered.  The equipments shall be placed in conspicuous positions and shall be readily accessible for immediate use in all parts of the occupancy.   It should always be borne in mind while selecting sites that first aid fire fighting equipments are intended only for use in incipient fires and their values may be negligible if the fire is not extinguished or brought under control in the early stages.

(b)               Buckets and extinguishers shall be placed at convenient and easily accessible locations either on hangers or on stands in such a way that their bottom is 750 mm. above the floor level.

(7)               The operating instructions of the extinguishers shall not be defaced or obliterated.  In case the operating instructions are obliterated or have become illegible due to passage of time fresh transfers of the same shall be obtained from the manufacturers of the equipments and affixed to the extinguishers.

 

SCHEDULE II

Equipment to be provided with Trailer Pump

For light trailer pump of a capacity of 680 litres/minute

1 Armoured suction hose of 9 metres length, with wrenches

1 Metal suction strainer

1 Basket strainer

1 Two-way suction collecting head

1 Suction adaptor

10 Unlined or rubber lined 70 mm. delivery hose of 25 metres length complete with quick-release couplings

1 Dividing breaching-piece

2 Branch-piece with 15 mm nozzles

1 Diffuzer nozzle

1 Standpipe with blank cap

1 Hydrant key                          

4 Collapsible canvas buckets

1 Fire hook (preventor) with cutting edge

1 25 mm manila rope of 30 metres length

1 Extension ladder of 9 metres length (where necessary)

1 Heavy axe

1 Spade

1 Pick axe

1 Crowbar

1 Saw

1 Hurricane lamp

1 Electric torch

1 Pair rubber gloves

For large trailer pump of capacity of 1800 litres/minute

1 Armoured suction hose of 9 metres length, with wrenches

1 Metal strainer

1 Basket Strainer

1 Three-way suction collecting-head

1 Suction adaptor

14 Unlined or rubber lined 70 mm. delivery hose of 25 metres length complete with quick-release couplings

1 Dividing breaching-piece

1 Collecting breaching-piece

4 Branch pipes with one 25 mm, two 20 mm and one diffuser nozzle

2 Standpipe with blank caps

2 Hydrant keys

6 Collapsible canvas buckets

1 Coiling hook (preventor) with cutting edge

1 50 mm. manila rope of 30 metres length

1 Extension ladder of 9 metres length (where necessary)

1 Heavy axe               1 Saw

1 Spade                     1 Hurricane lamp

1 Pick axe                  1 Electric torch

1 Crowbar                  1 Pair rubber gloves

 

Note :-  If it appears to the Chief Inspector of Factories that in any factory the provision of breathing apparatus is necessary he may by order in writing require the occupier to provide suitable breathing apparatus in addition to the equipment for light trailer pump or large trailer pump as the case may be.

 

Rule prescribed under Section 40-B

 

69.       Safety Officers

 

            (1)       Qualifications

 

(a)             A person shall not be eligible for appointment as a Safety Officer unless he –

 

            (i)         possesses  -

 

(aa)     a recognised degree in any branch of engineering or technology and has had practical experience of working in a factory in a supervisory capacity for a period of not less than 2 years; or

 

(bb)          a recognised degree in physics or chemistry and has had practical experience of working in a factory in a supervisory capacity for a period of not less than 5 years; or

 

(cc)           a recognised diploma in any branch of engineering or technology and has had practical experience of working in a factory in a supervisory capacity for a period of not less than 5 years;

 

(ii)        possesses a degree or diploma in industrial safety recognised by the State Government in this behalf; and

 

(iii)       has adequate knowledge of the language spoken by majority of the workers in the region in which the factory where he is to be appointed is situated?

 

 

(b)       Notwithstanding the provisions contained in clause (a), any person who

 

(i)         possesses a recognised degree or diploma in engineering or technology and has had experience of not less than 5 years in a department of the Central or State Government which deals with the administration of the Factories Act, 1948 or the Indian Dock Labourers Act, 1934; or

(ii)        possesses a recognised degree or diploma in engineering or technology and has had experience of not less than 5 years, full time, on training, education, consultancy, or research in the field of accident prevention in industry or in any institution;

      shall also be eligible for appointment as a Safety Officers :

Provided that the Chief Inspector may, subject to such conditions as may specify, grant exemption from the requirements of this sub-rule, if in his opinion, a suitable person possessing the necessary qualifications and experience is not available for appointment.

Provided further that, in the case of a person who has been working as a Safety Officer for a period of not less than 3 years on the date of commencement of this rule, the Chief Inspector may, subject to such conditions as he may specify, relax all or any of the above said qualifications.

 

      (2)       Conditions of service

 

(a)               Where the number of Safety Officers to be appointed in a factory as required by a notification in the Official Gazette exceeds one, one of them shall be designated as the Chief Safety Officer and shall have a status higher than that of the others.  The Chief Safety Officer shall be in overall charge of the safety functions as envisaged in sub-rule (3), the other Safety Officers working under his control.

(b)               The Chief Safety Officer or the Safety Officer in the case of factories where only one Safety Officer is required to be appointed, shall be given the status of a senior executive and he shall work directly under the control of the chief executive of the factory.  All other Safety Officers shall be given appropriate status to enable them to discharge their functions effectively.

(c)               The scale of pay and the allowances to be granted to the Safety Officers including the Chief Safety Officer, and the other conditions of their service shall be the same as those of the other officers of corresponding status in the factory.

(d)               In the case of dismissal or discharge, a Safety Officer shall have a right to appeal to the State Government whose decision thereon shall be final.

(3)       Duties of Safety Officers

 

(a)               The duties of a Safety Officer shall be to advise and assist the factory management in the fulfilment of its obligations, statutory or otherwise, concerning prevention of personal injuries and maintaining a safe working environment.  These duties shall include the following, namely -

(i)         to advise the concerned departments in planning and organising measures necessary for the effective control of personal injuries;

(ii)               to advise on safety aspects in all job studies, and to carry out detailed job safety studies of selected jobs;

(iii)             to check and evaluate the effectiveness of the action taken or proposed to be taken to prevent personal injuries;

(iv)             to advise the purchasing and stores departments in ensuring high quality and availability of personal protective equipment;

(v)                 to provide advice on matters related to carrying out plant safety inspections;

(vi)              to carry out plant safety inspections in order to observe the physical conditions of work and the work practices and procedures followed by workers and to render advice on measures to be adopted for removing the unsafe physical conditions and preventing unsafe actions by workers;

(vii)            to render advice on matters related to reporting and investigation of industrial accidents and diseases;

(viii)          to investigate selected accidents;

(ix)              to investigate the cases of industrial diseases contracted and dangerous occurrences reportable under rule 121;

(x)                to advise on the maintenance of such records as are necessary relating to accidents, dangerous occurrences and industrial diseases;

(xi)              to promote setting up of safety committees and act as adviser and catalyst to such committees;

(xii)            to organise in association with the concerned departments, campaigns, competitions, contests and other activities which will develop and maintain the interest of the workers in establishing and maintaining safe conditions of work and procedures; and

(xiii)          to design and conduct either independently or in collaboration with the training department, suitable training and educational programme for the prevention of personal injuries.

(4)               Facilities to be provided to Safety Officers. - An occupier of the factory shall provide each Safety Officer with such facilities, equipment and information as are necessary to enable him to discharge his duties effectively.

(5)               Prohibition of performance of other duties. - No safety Officer shall be required or permitted to do any work which is inconsistent with or detrimental to the performance of the duties prescribed in sub-rule (3).

 

Rules 70 to 73 prescribed under section 41

70.       Buildings and structures

No building, wall, chimney, bridge, tunnel, road, gallery, stairway, ramp, floor, platform, staging, or other structure, whether of a permanent or temporary character,  shall be constructed, situated or maintained in any factory in such a manner as to cause risk of bodily injury.

 

71.       Machinery and plant

No machinery, plant or equipment shall be constructed, situated, operated or maintained in any factory in such a manner as to cause risk of bodily injury.

 

72.       Methods of work

No process or work shall be carried in any factory in such a manner as to cause risk of bodily injury.

 

73.       Stacking and storing of materials, etc.

No materials or equipment shall be stacked or stored in such a manner as to cause risk of bodily injury.

74.       Ovens and Driers.

(1)       Application

This rule shall apply to ovens and driers, except those used in laboratories or kitchens of any establishment and those, which have a capacity below 325 litres.

(2)       Definition

For the purpose of this Rule, oven or drier means any enclosed structure, receptacle, compartment or box, which is used for baking, drying or otherwise processing of any article or substance at a temperature higher than the ambient temperature of the air in the room or space in which the oven or drier is situated, and in which a flammable substance is likely to be evolved within the enclosed structure, receptacle, compartment or box or part thereof on account of the article or substance which is baked, dried or otherwise processed within it.

(3)       Separate electrical connection

 

Electrical power supplied to every oven or drier shall be by means of a separate circuit provided with an isolation switch.

 

(4)       Design, construction, examination and testing.

 

(a)               Every oven or drier shall be properly designed on sound engineering practice and be of good construction, sound materials and adequate strength, free from any patent defects and safe if properly used.

 

(b)               No oven or drier shall be taken into use in a factory for the first time unless a competent person has thoroughly examined all its parts and carried out the tests as are required to establish that the necessary safe systems and controls provided for safety in operation for the processes for which it is to be used and a certificate of such examination and tests signed by that competent person has been obtained and is kept available for inspection.

 

(c)                All parts of an oven or drier which has undergone any alteration or repair which has the effect of modifying any of the design characteristics, shall not be used unless a thorough examination and tests as have been mentioned in clause (b) has been carried out by a competent person and a certificate of such examination and tests signed by that competent person has been obtained and is kept available  for inspection.

(5)       Safety ventilation

 

(a)               Every oven or drier shall be provided with a positive and effective safety ventilation system using one or more motor-driven centrifugal fans so as to dilute any mixture of air and any flammable substance that may be formed within the oven or drier and maintain the concentration of the flammable substance in the air at a safe level of dilution.

(b)               The safe level of dilution referred to in clause (a) shall be so as to achieve a concentration of the concerned flammable substance in air of not more than 25 percent of its lower explosive limit.

Provided that a level of concentration in air upto 50 percent of the lower explosive limit of the concerned flammable substance may be permitted to exist subject to installation and maintenance of an automatic device which -

i)                    shows continuously the concentration of the flammable substances in air present in the oven or drier at any instant

ii)                  sounds an alarm when the concentration of the flammable substance in air in any part of the oven or drier reaches a level of 50 percent of its lower explosive limit; and

iii)                shuts down the heating system of the oven or drier automatically when the concentration in air of the flammable substance in any part of the oven or drier reaches a level of 60 percent of its lower explosive limit, is provided to the oven or drier and maintained in efficient working condition

 

(c)               No oven or drier shall be operated without its safety ventilation system working in an efficient manner.

(d)               No oven or drier shall be operated with a level of dilution less than what is referred to in clause (b).

(e)               Exhaust ducts of safety ventilation systems should be so designed and placed that their ducts discharge the mixture of air and flammable substance away from the workrooms and not near windows or doors or other openings from where the mixture could re-enter the workrooms.

(f)                 The fresh air admitted into the oven or drier by means of the safety ventilation system shall be circulated adequately by means of circulating fan or fans through all parts of the oven or drier so as to ensure that there are no locations where the flammable substance can accumulate in the air or become pocketed to any dangerous degree.

(g)               Throttling dampers in any safety ventilation system should be so designed by cutting away a portion of the damper or otherwise, that the system will handle atleast the minimum ventilation rate required for safety when they are set in their maximum throttling position.

 

(6)       Explosion panels.

 

(a)               Every oven or drier having an internal total space of not less than half cubic metre shall be provided with suitably designed explosion panels so as to allow release of the pressure of any possible explosion within the oven or drier through explosion vents.  The area of openings to be provided  by means of such vents together with the area of openings of any access doors which are provided with suitable arrangements for their release in case of an explosion, shall be not less than 2200 square centimetre for every one cubic metre of volume of the oven or drier.  The design of the explosion panels and doors as above said shall be such as to secure their complete release under an internal pressure of 0.25 kg per square centimetre.

(b)               The explosion releasing panels, shall, as far as practicable, be situated at the roof of the oven or drier or at those portions of the walls where persons do not remain in connection with operation of the oven or drier.

 

(7)       Interlocking arrangements

 

(a)               In each oven or drier efficient inter-locking arrangements shall be provided and maintained to ensure that

i)                    all ventilating fans and circulating fans whose failures would adversely effect the ventilation rate or flow pattern, are in operation before any mechanical conveyor that may be provided for feeding the articles or substances to be processed in the oven or drier is put into operation;

ii)                  failure of any of the ventilating or circulating fans will automatically stop any conveyor as referred to in clause (i) as may be provided, as well as stop the fuel supply by closing the shut off valve and shut off the ignition in the case of gas or oil fired oven, and in the case of electrically heated oven switch off the electrical supply to the heaters;

iii)                the above said mechanical conveyor is set in operation before the above said shut off valve can be energised; and

iv)                the failure of the above said conveyor will automatically close the above said shut off valve in the case of ovens and driers heated by gas, oil or cut off the electrical heaters in the case of electrically heated ovens or furnaces.

(8)       Automatic pre-ventilation

Every oven or drier heated by oil, gas, steam or electrically shall be provided with an efficient arrangement for automatic pre ventilation consisting of at least 3 volume changes with fresh air by operation of safety ventilation fans and the circulating fans (if used) so as to effect purging of the oven or drier of any mixture of air and a flammable substance before the heating system can be activated and before the conveyor can be placed in position.

 

(9)       Temperature control

Every oven or drier shall be provided with an automatic arrangement to ensure that the temperature within does not exceed a safe upper present limit to be decided in respect of the particular processing being carried on.

 

(10)     Multistage processes

 Wherever materials are to be processed in ovens or driers in successive operations, suitable arrangement should be provided to ensure that the operating temperatures necessary for safe operation at each stage are maintained within the design limits.

 

(11)     Combustible substances not to drip on electrical heaters or burners flame

Effective arrangements shall be provided in every oven or drier to prevent dripping of combustible substances on electric heaters or burner flame used for heating.

 

 (12)    Periodical examination, testing and maintenance.

(a)               All parts of every oven and drier shall be properly maintained and thoroughly examined and the various controls as mentioned in this rule and the working of the oven or drier tested at frequent intervals to ensure its safe operation by a responsible person designated by the occupier or manager, who by his experience and knowledge of necessary precautions against risks of explosion, is fit to undertake such work.

(b)               A register shall be maintained in which the details of the various tests carried out from time to time under clause (a) shall be entered and every entry made shall be signed by the person making the tests.

 

(13)     Training of operators.

 

No person shall be assigned any task connected with operation of any oven or drier unless he has completed 18 years of age and he is properly trained.

(14)     Polymerizing machines.

(a)         Printed fabric shall be thoroughly dried by passing them over drying cans or through hot flue or other equally effective means, before the same is allowed to pass through polymerising machines.

 

(b)         Infrared ray heaters of polymerising machines shall be cut off while running the prints.

75.       Shipbuilding and ship-repairing

(1)               Application :

           

            This rule shall apply as respects work carried out in any of the operations as defined in sub-rule (2)

     

            (2)       Definitions

                       

                        In this rule unless there is anything repugnant in the subject or context –

 

(a)   ”certificate of entry” means a certificate which is given by a person who is a competent analyst and who is competent to give such certificates, and certifies that he has in an adequate and suitable manner tested the atmosphere in the oil-tank or oil-tanks specified in the certificate and found that having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including the likelihood or otherwise of the atmosphere being or becoming dangerous, entry to the oil-tank or oil-tanks without wearing breathing apparatus may in his opinion be permitted;

 

(b)   ‘hot work’ means any work which involves

 

(i)   welding, burning, soldering, brazing, sand blasting or chipping by spark producing tools; or

(ii) use of non-flameproof electrical equipment or equipment with internal combustion engines; and includes any other work which is likely top produce sufficient heat capable of igniting flammable gases or vapours;

(c)   “naked light certificate” means a certificate which is given by a person who is competent analyst and who is competent to give such certificates, and certifies that he has in an adequate and suitable manner tested for the presence of flammable vapour the oil-tank, compartment, space or other part of the vessel specified in the certificate and found it to be free therefrom and that having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including the likelihood or otherwise of the atmosphere becoming flammable, the use of naked lights, fires, lamps or heated rivets or any hot work to be carried out may in his opinion be permitted in the oil-tank, compartment, space or other part of the vessel specified in the certificates;

(d)   ”oil” means any liquid which has flash point below 132 degrees centigrade and also includes lubricating oils, liquid methane, liquid butane and liquid propane;

 

Explanation.- Flash point where ever it occurs in this rule shall be flash point as determined by Abel Closed Cup or Pensky-Marten Closed Cup procedures as described in I.S. 1448-1960.

 

(e) “oil-tank” means any tank or compartment in which oil, or has been carried;

 

(f)  “the operations” means -

 

(i)   construction, reconstruction, or breaking up of any ship or vessel, repairing, refitting, painting and finishing;

 

(ii) the scaling, scuffing or cleaning of its boilers (including combustion chambers or smoke boxes); and

 

(iii) the cleaning of its bilge or oil-fuel tanks or any of its tanks last used for carrying oil.

 

For the purpose of this definition the expression “oil” means oil of any description whether or not oil within the meaning of foregoing definition of that expression;

 

(g)    “ship and vessel” have the same meanings as in the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958;

 

(h)         “shipyard” means any yard or dry dock (including the precincts thereof) in which ships or vessels are constructed, reconstructed, repaired, refitted or finished;

 

(i)           “stage” means any temporary platform on or from which persons employed perform work in connection with the operations, but does not include a boat-swain’s chair;

 

(j)            “staging” includes any stage, and any upright, thwart, thwart pin, wedge, distance piece, belt or other appliance or material, not being part of the structure of the vessel, which is used in connection with the support of any stage, and any guard-rails connected with a stage; and

 

(k)         “tanker” means a vessel constructed or adopted for carrying a cargo of oil in bulk.

Access and staging

(3)       General access to vessels in a shipyard.

 

All main gangways giving general access to a vessel in a shipyard, whether from the ground or from a wharf or quay, and all cross gangways leading from such a main gangway on to the vessel, shall –

 

(a)   be at least 60 centimetres wide;

 

(b)   be securely protected on each side to a height of at least 90 centimetres by strongly constructed upper and lower hand-rails and by a secure toe-board projecting at least 15 centimetres above the floor;

 

(c)   be of good construction, sound material and adequate strength;

 

(d)   be stable and, where ever practicable, of permanent construction;

 

(e)   be kept in position as long as required; and

 

(f)     maintained in good repair.

 

(4)       Access to dry dock

 

(a)               Every flight of steps giving access from ground level either to an altar or to the bottom of a dry dock shall be provided throughout on each side with a substantial hand-rail.  In the case of an open side, secure fencing to height of at least 90 centimetres shall be provided by means of upper and lower rails, taut ropes or chains, or by other equally safe means.  For the purposes of this clause a flight of steps which is divided into two by a chute for materials, with no space between either side of the chute and the steps, shall be deemed to be one flight of steps.

(b)               Such hand-rails and fencing as aforesaid shall be kept in position save when and to the extent to which their absence is necessary (whether or not for  the purposes of the operation) for the access of persons, or for the movement of materials or vessels or for traffic or working, or for repair, but hand-rails or fencing removed for any of those purposes shall be kept readily available and shall be replaced as soon as practicable.

(5)       Access to vessels in dry dock.

 

(a)               If a ship is lying in a dry dock for the purpose of undergoing any of the operations, there shall be provided as means of access for the use of workers at such times as they have to pass to, or from, the ship or dry dock

 

(i)         where reasonably practicable one or more ship’s accommodation ladders; or

 

(ii)               one or more soundly constructed gangways or similar constructions.

 

 

(b)               The means so provided shall be not less than 55 centimetres wide properly secured and fenced throughout on each side to a clear height of 90 centimetres by means of upper and lower rails, taut ropes or chains or by any other safe means, except that in the case of the ship’s accommodation ladder, such fencing shall be necessary on one side only provided where the other side is properly protected by the ship’s side.

 

(c)               Where at any dry lock, there is a gangway giving access from an alter of the dock to a vessel which is in the dock for the purpose of undergoing any of the altar is unfenced, adequate hand-holds shall be available for any length of the alter which workers commonly use when passing between   the gangway and the nearest flight of steps which gives access to ground level.

 

(6)       Access to and from bulwarks

Where there is a gangway leading on to a bulwark of a vessel there shall be provided -

(a)               Wherever practicable, a platform at the in-board end of the gangway with safe means of access therefrom to the docks; or

(b)               where such a platform is not practicable, a second gangway or stair way leading from a bulwark on to the dock which are either attached to the first mentioned gangway or placed contiguous to it, in which case means of access, securely protected by fencing, shall be provided from the one to the other.

 

(7)       Access to staging, etc.

 

(a)               Where outside staging is erected in a shipyard, there shall be provided sufficient ladders giving direct access to the stages having regard to the extent of the staging and to the work to be done.

(b)               Where a vessel is  under construction or reconstruction and workers are liable to go forward or aft or athwartship across or along uncovered deck-beams, or across or along floors, sufficient planks shall be provided on those deck-beams or on these floors for the purpose of access to or from places of work, and sufficient and suitable portable ladders shall be provided so as to give access either from the ground or outer bottom plating to the top of the floor.

(c)               Without prejudice to any other provision in this rule requiring a greater width, no foot way or passageway constructed of planks shall be less than 45 centimetres wide.

(8)       Ladders

 

(a)               Subject to clauses (b) and of this sub-rule, every ladder which affords a means of access, communication or support to a person shall

 

(i)         be soundly constructed and properly maintained; and

(ii)               be of adequate strength for the purpose for which it is used; and

(iii)             be securely fixed either -

(aa)     as near its upper resting place as possible, or

(bb)          where this is impracticable, at its base, or where such fixing is impracticable a person shall be stationed at the base of the ladder when in use to prevent it from slipping; and

(iv)              unless there is other adequate hand-hold, extend to a height of at least 75 centimetres above the place of landing or the highest rung to be reached by the foot of any person working on the ladder, as the case may be, or, if this is impracticable, to the greatest practicable height.

(b)       Requirements (iii) and (iv) of the preceding clause of this sub-rule shall not apply to fixed ladders of a ship or to rope ladders.  Effective measures by means of roping off or other similar means shall be taken to prevent the use of fixed ladders of a ship which do not comply with requirements (i) and (ii) of that clause.

(c)        Any worker who removes any ladder and sets it up in a new position shall, as regards that ladder, comply with requirements (iii) of clause (a) of this sub-rule.

(d)               Rope ladders shall provide foot-hold of a depth including any space behind the ladder of not less than 12 centimetres and, so far as is reasonably practicable, suitable provision shall be made for preventing such ladders from twisting.

(9)       Lashing of ladders.

(a)               A fibre rope, or a rope made with strands consisting of wire cores covered with fibre, shall not be used to secure a ladder used for the purpose of the operations.

(b)               A wire rope shall not be used to secure any such ladder unless its ends are ferruled, but this provision shall not apply in the case of an end which is so situated or protected that a person using the ladder is not liable to come into contact with it so as to suffer injury.

(10)     Material for staging

(a)   A sufficient supply of sound and substantial material and appliances shall be available in a convenient place or places for the construction of staging.

(b)     All planks and other materials and appliances intended to be used or re-used for staging shall be carefully examined before being taken into use  or re-use in any staging.  Every examination required by  this  clause shall be carried out by a person competent for the purpose.

(11)     Staging, dry dock altars and shoring sills.

(a)         All staging and every part thereof shall be of good construction, of suitable and sound material and of adequate strength for the purpose for which it is used and shall be properly maintained, and every up-right and thwart shall be kept so fixed, secured or placed in position as to prevent, so far as is reasonably practicable, accidental displacement.

(b)         All planks forming stages shall be securely fastened to prevent them from slipping unless they extend 45 centimetres or more beyond the inside edge of the thwart or support on which they rest.

(c)         All staging used in connection with the operations shall be inspected before use, and thereafter at regular      and frequent intervals, by a responsible person.

(d)         All dry dock altars and shoring sills on or from which persons perform work in connection with the operations shall be of sound construction and properly maintained.

(e)         All parts of stages, all parts of foot ways or passageways constructed of planks, and all parts of dry dock altars or shoring sills, being parts on or from which persons perform work in connection with the operations, shall so far as is reasonably practicable, be kept clear of all substances likely to make foot-hold or hand-hold insecure.

(12)     Upright used for hoisting block.

(a)               If any upright forming part of staging is used as a fixing for a pulley block for hoisting materials

 

(i)         it shall be properly housed in the ground or shall otherwise be adequately secured so as to prevent it from raising; and

 

(ii)        it shall be suitably protected against damage by the action of the chain or wire or other means of securing the pulley block to the upright.

(b)               No upright forming part of staging shall be used as an anchorage for a load pulley block, unless the upright is not likely to be displaced by such use.

 

       (13)    Support of stages on planks.

 

Planks supported on the rungs of ladders shall not be used to support stages.

 

(14)     Suspended stages.

 

(a)               Stages suspended by ropes or chains shall be secured as far as possible so as to prevent them from swinging.

(b)               A fibre rope, or a rope made of strands consisting of wire cores covered with fibre, shall not be used for suspending a stage except that fibre ropes may be used in the case of a stage of which the suspension ropes are reeve through blocks.

(c)               Chains, ropes, blocks and other gear used for the suspension of stages shall be of sound material, adequate    strength and suitable quality, and in good condition.

(d)               Appropriate steps shall be taken to prevent ropes or chains used for supporting a stage from coming into contact with sharp edges of any part of a vessel.

 

(15)     Boatswain’s chairs.

(a)               Boatswains’ chairs and chains, ropes or other gear used for their suspension shall be of sound material, adequate strength and suitable quality and the chains, ropes or other gear shall be securely attached.

(b)               Suitable measures shall be taken to prevent wherever possible the spinning of a boatswain’s chair, to prevent the tipping of a boatswain’s chair and to prevent any occupant falling therefrom.

 

     (16)      Rising stages.

 

All planks forming a rising stage at the bow end of a vessel shall be securely fastened to prevent them from slipping.

 

(17)     Width of staging

 

Without prejudice to the other provisions of these sub-rules, all stages shall be of sufficient width as is reasonable in all the circumstances of the case to secure the safety of the persons working thereon.

 

(18)     Stages from which a person is liable to fall more than 2 meters or into water.

 

(a)               This sub-rule applies to stages from which a person is liable to fall a height of more than 2 meters or into water in which there is a risk of drowning.

(b)               Every stage to which this sub-rule applies -

(i)         shall so far as  is reasonably practicable be closely boarded, planked or plated;

(ii)               shall be so constructed or placed that a person is not liable to fall as aforesaid through a gap in the staging not being a gap necessary and no larger than necessary having regard to the nature of the work being carried on, and

(iii)             shall be at least 45 centimetres wide.

 

 (c)       Every side of a stage to which this sub-rule applies shall-

      (i)         if it is not a side immediately adjacent to any part of a vessel, be fenced (subject to the provisions of clauses (d)  to (g) of this sub-rule) with a guard-rail or guard-rails to a height of at least 1 metre above the stage, with rail or rails shall be so placed as to prevent so far as practicable the  fall of persons from the stage or from any raised standing place on the stage; or

(ii)               if it is a side immediately adjacent to any part of a vessel, be placed as near as practicable to that part having regard to the nature of the work being carried on and to the nature of the structure of the vessel.

 

             (d)      In the case of stages which are suspended by ropes or chains, and which are used solely for painting, the fencing required by sub-clause (i) of the preceding clause may be provided by means of taut guard-rope or taut guard-ropes.

 

(e)               No side of stage or, as the case may be, no part of the side of a stage need be fenced in pursuance of clause (c) (i) of this sub-rule in cases where and as long as, the nature of the work being carried on makes the fencing of that side or, as the case may be, that part impracticable.

 

(f)                 Guard-rails provided in pursuance of clause (c) (i) of this sub-rule may be removed for the time and to the extent necessary for the access of persons or for the movement of materials, but guard-rails removed for either of these purposes shall be replaced as soon as practicable.

 

(g)               Where it is not reasonably practicable to comply with the provisions of clause (c) (i) of this sub-rule, workers shall be provided with suitable safety  belts equipped with life lines which are secured with a minimum amount of slack  to a fixed structure.

 

Further precautions against fall of persons, materials and articles

 

(19)     Fencing of dry docks.

 

(a)         Fencing shall be provided at or near the edges of a dry dock at ground level, including edges above flights of steps and chutes for materials.  The height of such fencing shall at no point be less than 1 metre.

 

(b)           Such fencing as aforesaid shall be kept in position save when and to the extent to which its absence is necessary (whether or not for the purposes of the operations) for the access of persons, or for movement of materials or vessels or for traffic or working, or for repair, but fencing removed for any of these purposes shall be kept  readily available and shall be replaced as soon as practicable.

 

(20)     Protection of openings

 

(a)               Every  side or edge of an opening in a deck or tank top of a vessel, being a side or edge which may be a source of danger to workers shall, except where and while the opening is securely covered or where the side or edge is protected to a height of not less than 75 centimetres by a coaming or other part of the vessel, be provided with fencing to a height of not less than 90 centimetres above the edge or side and such fencing shall be kept in position save when and to the extent to which its absence is necessary (whether or not for the purposes of the operations) for the access of persons, or for the movement of materials, or for traffic or working, or for repair, but fencing removed for any of these purposes shall be kept readily available and shall be replaced as soon as practicable.

 

(b)               Clause (a) of this sub-rule shall not apply

 

(i)         to that part of an opening in a deck or tank top which is at the head of a stairway or ladderway intended to be used while the operations are being carried on; or

 

(ii)               to parts of a deck or tank top which are intended to be plated, except such parts where the plating has necessarily to be delayed so that the opening may be used for the purpose of the operations.

 

(21)     Fall of articles from stage.

 

 Where workers are at work outside a vessel on a stage adjacent to part of the structure of the vessel and other workers are at work directly beneath that stage, the planks of the stage shall be in such a position that no article liable to cause injury to the workers can fall between the planks, and the inside plank of the stage shall be placed as near as practicable to the structure of the vessel having regard to the nature of the work being carried on.

 

(22)     Boxes for rivets, etc.

 

(a)         Boxes or other suitable receptacles for rivets, nuts, bolts and welding rods shall be provided for the use of workers.

 

(b)         It shall be the duty of the workers to use, so far as practicable, the boxes or other suitable receptacles so provided.

 

(23)     Throwing down materials and articles

 

(a)                 Subject to the provisions of clause (b) of this sub-rule, parts of staging, tools and other articles and materials shall not be thrown down from a height where they are liable to cause injury to workers, but shall be properly lowered.

(b)                 When the work to be done necessarily involves the throwing down from a height of articles or materials, conspicuous notice shall be posted to warn persons from working or passing underneath the place from which the articles or materials may fall, or the work shall be done under the direct supervision  of a competent person  in authority.

(c)                  No person shall throw down any articles or materials from a height except in accordance with the requirements of this sub-rule.

 

(24)     Loose articles or materials.

So far as practicable, steps shall be taken to minimise the risk arising from loose articles or materials being left lying about in any place from which they may fall on workers or persons passing underneath.

 

Raising and lowering

 

(25)     Secureness of loads

 

(a)               Loads shall be securely suspended or supported whilst being raised or lowered, and all reasonable precautions shall be taken to prevent danger from slipping or displacement.

(b)               Where by reason of the nature or position of the operations load is liable, whilst  being  moved by a lifting machine or lifting tackle, to come into contact with any object so that the object may become displaced, special measures shall be adopted to prevent the danger so far as is reasonably practicable.

(26)     Support of lifting machines and lifting tackle

Every lifting machine and all lifting tackle shall be adequately and suitable supported or suspended having regard to the purpose for which it is used.

 

(27)     Wire ropes with broken wires.

 

No wire rope shall be used if in any length of ten diameters the total number of visible broken wires exceeds five percent of the total number of wires, or if the rope shows signs of excessive wear or corrosion or other serious defect.

 

(28)     Splices in wire ropes

 

A thimble or loop slice made in any wire rope shall have at least three tucks with a whole strand of the rope and two tucks with one half of the wires cut out of each strand.  All tucks shall be against the lay of the rope.

 

Provided that this sub-rule shall not operate to prevent the use of another form of splice which can be shown to be as efficient as the form of splice specified in this sub-rule.

(29)     Knotted chains, etc.

(a)               No chain or wire rope shall be used when there is a knot tied in any part thereof.

 

(b)               No chain which is shortened or joined to another chain by means of bolts and nuts shall be used:

 

Provided that this does not exclude the use of a chain bolted or joined to another chain by an approved and properly constructed attachment.

(30)     Precautions against damage to chains and ropes

Appropriate steps shall be taken to prevent, so far as practicable, the use of chains or ropes for raising or lowering in circumstances in which they are in or liable to come into contact with sharp edges of plant, materials or loads, or with sharp edges of any part of the vessel on which work is being carried out.

 

(31)     Loads on lifting appliances

 

No load shall be left suspended from a lifting appliance other than a self-sustaining, manually operated lifting appliance unless there is a competent person in charge of the appliance while the load is so left.

 

(32)     Heavy loads

 

Where there is reason to believe that a load being lifted or lowered on a lifting appliance weighs more than 20 tonnes its weight shall be ascertained by means of an accurate weighing machine or by the estimation of a person competent for the purpose, and shall be clearly marked on the load:

 

Provided that this sub-rule shall not apply to any load lifted or lowered by a crane which has either a fixed or a derricking jib and which is fitted  with an approved type of indicator in good working order which-

 

(a)   indicates clearly to the driver or person operating the crane when the load being carried approaches the safe working load  of the crane for the radius of the jib at which the load is carried; and

 

(b)   gives an efficient sound signal when the load moved is in excess of the  safe working load of the crane at that radius.

 

Precautions against asphyxiation,

injurious fumes or explosions

 

(33) Certification for entry into confined spaces likely to contain dangerous fumes

A space shall not be certified under section 36(3) (a) of the Act unless -

(a)               effective steps have been taken to prevent any ingress of dangerous fumes;

 

(b)               any sludge or other deposit liable to give off dangerous fumes has been removed and the space contains no other material liable to give off dangerous fumes; and

 

(c)               the space has been adequately ventilated and tested for dangerous fumes and has a supply of air adequate for respiration:

 

Provided that no account shall be taken for the purposes of clause (b) of this sub-rule of any deposit or other material liable to give off dangerous fumes in insignificant quantities only.

 

(34)     Precautions against shortage of oxygen.

 

No person shall enter or remain in any confined space in a vessel, being a confined space in which there is reason to apprehend that the proportion of oxygen in the air is so low as to involve risk of persons being overcome, unless either –

 

(a)   the space has been and remains adequately  ventilated and a responsible person has tested it and  certified that it is safe for entry without breathing apparatus; or

 

(b)   he is wearing a suitable breathing apparatus and a safety belt securely attached to a rope, the free end of which is held by a person standing outside the confined space.

(35)     Rivet fires.

(a)               Rivet fires shall not be taken into or used in or remain in any confined space on board or in a vessel unless there is adequate ventilation to prevent the accumulation of fumes.

(b)               No person employed shall move a rivet fire into any confined space on board or in a vessel unless he has been authorised by his employer to move the fire into that space.

(36)     Gas cylinders and acetylene generators.

(a)               No cylinder which contains or has contained oxygen or any flammable gas or vapour at a pressure above atmospheric pressure and no acetylene generating plant, shall be installed or placed within 5 meters of any substantial source of heat (including any boiler or furnace when alight) other than the burner or blow-pipe operated from the cylinder or plant.

 

(b)               No such cylinder and no such plant shall be taken below the weather deck in the case of a vessel undergoing repair, or below the top most completed deck in the case of a vessel under construction, unless it is installed or placed in a part of the vessel which is adequately ventilated to prevent any dangerous concentration of gas or fumes.

(37)     Further provision as to acetylene generators

(a)   The following provisions shall be observed as respects any acetylene generating plant: -

 

(i)      no such plant shall be installed or placed in any confined space unless effective and suitable provision is made for securing and maintaining the adequate ventilation of that space so as to prevent, so far as practicable, any dangerous accumulation of gases

 

(ii)         any person attending or operating any such plant shall have been fully instructed in its working and a copy of the maker’s instructions for that type of plant shall be constantly available for his use;

 

(iii)       the charging and cleaning of such plant shall so far as practicable be done during daylight; and

 

(iv)        partly spent calcium carbide shall not be re-charged into an acetylene generator.

 

(b)   No person shall smoke or strike a light or take a naked light or  a lamp in or into any acetylene generator house or shed or in or into dangerous proximity to any acetylene generating plant in the open air or on board a vessel:

 

Provided that this clause shall not apply as respects a generator in the open air or on board a vessel which, since it was last charged, has been thoroughly cleaned and freed from any calcium carbide and acetylene gas.

 

(c)   A prominent notice prohibiting smoking, naked lights and lamps shall be exhibited on or near every acetylene generating plant whilst it is charged or is being charged or is being cleaned.

(38)     Construction of plant for cutting, welding or heating metal.

(a)               Pipes or hoses for the supply of oxygen or any flammable gas or vapour to any apparatus for cutting, welding or heating metal shall be of good construction and sound material and be properly maintained.

(b)               Such pipes or hoses shall be securely attached to the apparatus and other connections by means of suitable clips or other equally effective appliances.

(c)               Efficient reducing and regulating valves for reducing the pressure of the gases shall be provided and maintained in connection with all cylinders containing oxygen or any flammable  gas or vapour at a pressure above atmospheric pressure while the gases or vapours from such cylinders are being used in any process of cutting, welding or heating metal.

(d)        Where acetylene gas is used for cutting, welding or heating metal -

(i)         a properly constructed and efficient back pressure valve and flame arrester shall be provided and maintained in the acetylene supply pipe between each burner or blow-pipe and the acetylene generator, cylinder or container from which it is supplied, and shall be placed as near as practicable to the burner or blow-pipe, except that these requirements shall not apply where an acetylene cylinder serves only one burner or blow-pipe; and 

(ii)               any hydraulic valve provided in pursuance of the preceding sub-clause shall be inspected on each day by every person who uses  the burner or blow-pipe on that day and it shall be the duty of every worker who used the burner or blow-pipe to inspect the hydraulic valve accordingly.

(e)       The operating valves of burners or blow-pipes to which oxygen or any flammable gas or vapours is supplied for the purpose of cutting, welding or heating metal shall be so constructed, or the operating mechanism shall be so protected, that the valves cannot be opened accidentally.

(39)     Precautions after use of apparatus for cutting, welding or heating metal.

(a)               In the case of apparatus on board a vessel and used for cutting, welding, or heating metal with the aid of oxygen or any  flammable gas or vapour supplied at a pressure above atmospheric pressure, the precautions specified in the following clauses of this sub-rule shall be taken when such cease for the day or for a substantial period and the apparatus is to be left on board, but need not be taken when such use is discontinued merely during short interruptions of work.  The requirements in clauses (a) and (d) of this sub-rule shall not apply during a meal interval, provided that a responsible person is placed in charge of the plant and equipment referred to therein.

(b)               Supply valves of cylinders, generators and gas mains shall be securely closed and the valve key shall be kept in the custody of a responsible person.

(c)               Movable pipes or hoses used for conveying oxygen or flammable gas or vapour and the welding and cutting torches shall, in the case  of a vessel undergoing construction, be brought to the top most completed deck, or in the case of a vessel undergoing repair, to a weather deck or in the either case to some other place of safety which is adequately ventilated to prevent any dangerous concentration of gas or fumes:

Provided that where, owing to the nature of the work, it is impracticable to comply with the foregoing requirements of this clause, the pipes or hoses shall be disconnected from cylinders, generators or gas mains, as the case may be.

(d)               When the cylinders or acetylene generating plane have been taken below deck as permitted by clause (b) of sub-rule (36) such cylinders or acetylene generating plant shall be brought to a weather deck or, in the case of a vessel undergoing construction, to the top most completed deck.

(40)     Naked lights and hot work oil-carrying vessels.

(a)               Subject to the provisions of clause (b) of this sub-rule and to the provisions of sub-rule (48), and without prejudice to the provisions of sub-rules (46) and (47), no naked light, fire or lamp (other than a safety lamp of a type approved for the purpose of this sub-rule) –

 

(i)         shall be permitted to be applied to, or to be in, or any hot work permitted to be carried out in any part of a tanker, unless since oil was last carried in that tanker, a naked lights certificate has been obtained and is in force in respect of those parts of the tanker for which, in the opinion of a competent analyst, a naked light certificate is necessary:

Provided that a naked light, fire or lamp of a kind specified in writing by a competent analyst may be applied to, or be in, or any hot work of a type specified by him carried on, any part of the tanker so specified;

(ii)        shall be permitted  

(aa)     to be in any oil tanker on board or in  a vessel in which oil-tank the oil last carried was oil having a flash  point of less than 23 degrees centigrade or was liquid butane, nor any hot work permitted to be carried out in any such oil tank or vessel, unless a naked light certificate has previously been obtained on the same day and is in force in respect of that oil tank and of any oil tank, compartment or space adjacent thereto;

(bb)          to be applied to the outer surface of any oil-tank on board or in a vessel in which oil-tank the oil last carried was such oil as aforesaid nor any work of such a nature which is likely to produce sufficient heat capable of igniting flammable gases or vapours permitted to be carried out on the outer surface of such oil-tank or vessel, unless a naked light certificate has previously been obtained on the same day and is in force in respect of that oil-tank;

(cc)           to be applied to the outer surface of, or to be in, any compartment or space adjacent to an oil-tank on board or in a vessel in which oil-tank the oil last carried was such oil as aforesaid, nor any hot work permitted to be carried out in such compartment or space as aforesaid, nor any work of such nature which is likely to produce sufficient heat capable of igniting flammable gases or vapours, permitted to be carried out on the outer surface of such compartment or space, unless a naked light certificate has previously been obtained on the same day and is in force in respect of that compartment or space:   

Provided that where in any such case referred to in paragraphs (aa) (bb) or (cc) of this sub-clause a competent analyst has certified that daily naked light certificate are unnecessary or are necessary only to a specified extent, such a daily certificate need not be  obtained or, as the case may be, need only be obtained to the specified extent;

(iii)             shall be permitted to be applied to the outer surface, or to be in, any oil-tank on board or in a vessel nor any hot work permitted to be carried out in any such oil-tank or vessel, nor any work of such nature which is likely to  produce sufficient heat capable of igniting flammable gases or vapours, permitted to be carried out on the outer surface of the oil tank or vessel, unless, since oil was last carried in that oil-tank, a naked light certificate has been obtained and is in force in respect of that oil-tank;

 

(iv)              shall be permitted to be applied to the outer surface of, or to be in, any compartment or space adjacent to an oil-tank on board or in a vessel nor any hot-work permitted to be carried out in any such compartment or space, nor any work of such nature which is likely to produce sufficient heat capable of igniting flammable gases or vapours, permitted to be carried out on the outer surface of any such compartment or space, unless, since oil was last  carried as cargo in that oil-tank, a naked light certificate has been obtained and is in force in respect of that compartment or space.

 

(b)               Not withstanding anything in clause (a) of this sub-rule, heated rivets may be permitted in  any place without naked light certificate being in force in respect of that place if expressly so authorised by a competent analyst who certifies that after adequate and suitable testing, he is satisfied having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including the likelihood or otherwise of the atmosphere becoming flammable, that the place is sufficiently free from flammable vapour; but such heated rivets shall, where practicable, be passed through tubes.

 

(c)               No person shall introduce, have or apply naked light, fire or lamp (other than safety lamp of a type approved for the purpose of this sub-rule) into, in or to any place where they are prohibited by this sub-rule.

 

(d)               No person shall carry out hot work or any work of such nature which is likely to produce sufficient heat capable of igniting flammable gases or vapours, in any place or any surface where they are prohibited by this sub-rule.

 

(e)               In this sub-rule the expression ‘competent analyst’ means an analyst who is competent to give a naked light certificate.

(41)     Entering oil-tanks

(a)               No person (other than an analyst  entering with a view to issuing a certificate of entry) shall, unless he is wearing a breathing apparatus of a type approved for the purpose of this sub-rule, enter or remain in an oil-tank on board or in a vessel unless, since the oil-tank last contained oil, a certificate of entry has been obtained and is in force in respect of the tank.

 

(b)               Without prejudice to clause (a) of this sub-rule, no person (other than an analyst entering as aforesaid) shall be allowed or required to enter or remain in an oil-tank on board or in a vessel in which oil-tank the oil last carried was oil having a flash point of less than 23 degrees centigrade unless, since the oil-tank last contained oil, an analyst has certified that the atmosphere is sufficiently free from flammable mixture

 

(c)               The provisions of this sub-rule are without prejudice to the requirements of sub-rule (34).

 

(42)     Duration of certificates

 

Any naked light certificate or certificate of entry may be issued subject to a condition that it shall not remain in force after a time specified in the certificate.

 

(43)     Posting of certificates

 

Every occupier for whom a naked light certificate or a certificate of entry is obtained shall ensure that the certificate or a duplicate thereof is posted as soon as may be and remains posted in a position where it may conveniently read by all persons concerned.

 

(44)     Maintaining safe atmosphere

 

(a)               When conditions in an oil-tank in respect of which a naked light certificate has been issued, are such that there is a possibility of oil vapour being released from residues or other sources, test shall be carried out by a competent analyst at such intervals as may be required so as to ensure that the conditions in the tank are maintained safe.

(b)               Whenever hot work is carried on or a naked light, fire or lamp is allowed to be, on the weather deck over spaces, in respect of which a naked light certificate has not been issued, all covers of manholes and openings on deck and all valves  (except those which are connected to high vent pipes) connecting the weather deck with the said spaces, shall be closed.

(c)               A record of all the tests carried out for the purpose of sub-rules (34), (40) and (41) shall be maintained in a register which should furnish the date, time, location and results of the tests.

(45)     Cleaning of oil-tanks

(a)               Subject to the provisions of sub-rule (48), before a test for flammable vapour is carried out with a view to the issue of a naked light certificate for the purposes of sub-rule (40) in respect of a an oil-tank on board or in a vessel, that oil-tank shall, since oil was last introduced into the tank, be cleaned and ventilated in accordance with clause(b) of this sub-rule.

 

(b)               The said cleaning and ventilation shall be carried out by the following methods :

 

(i)   the oil-tank shall be treated in such manner and for such periods as will ensure the vaporisation of all volatile oil;

 

(ii)               all residual oil and any sludge or other deposit in the oil-tank shall be removed therefrom; and

 

(iii)             after the oil-tank has been so cleaned,-

 

(aa)     all covers of manholes and other openings therein shall be removed and it shall be thoroughly ventilated by mechanical or other efficient means with a view to the removal of all oil vapour; and then

 

(bb)     the interior surfaces, if any deposit remains thereon, shall be washed or scraped down.

 

(46)     Invalidation of certificates

(a)               If during the course of work in, or to the outer surface of, any part of a tanker or aircraft carrier, any pipe or tank joint is opened or broken or any other event occurs so that there is a risk of oil vapour entering or arising in that part of the tanker or aircraft carrier, that work shall be suspended and thereafter any certificate of entry previously issued in respect  of any oil-tank in that part and any naked light certificate previously issued in respect of that part shall be no longer in force.

(b)               If (in case of a vessel other than a  tanker or aircraft carrier) during the course of work in any oil-tank or in any compartment or space adjacent thereto, any pipe or tank joint is opened or broken or any other event occurs so that there is a risk of oil vapour entering or arising in the oil-tank or in any compartment or space adjacent thereto that work shall be suspended and thereafter any certificate of entry previously issued in respect of the oil-tank or any compartment or space adjacent thereto shall be no longer in force.

(47)     Provisions as to work in other compartments or space

(a)               Without prejudice to the other provisions of this rule, if the presence of oil in such quantity and in such position as to be likely to give rise to fire or explosion is detected in any part of a vessel, being a part to which this sub-rule applies and in which repairs of the following kind are to be or are being undertaken, that is to say, repairs involving the use of a naked light, fire or lamp (other than a safety lamp of a type approved for the purpose of sub-rule (40), or involving hot work, such repairs shall not be started or continued until a naked light certificate has been issued or, as the case may, reissued in respect of that part of the vessel.

(b)               This sub-rule shall apply to bilges, shaft tunnels, pump rooms, and to compartments and spaces other than those to which clause (a) (iv) of sub-rule (40) applies.

 

(48)     Exemptions

If the Chief Inspector is satisfied, by reasons of the nature of the work and the circumstances in which it is carried out, that any provisions of sub-rules (33) to (45) or part there of can be suspended or relaxed without danger to the health or safety of any person, he may grant suspension or relaxation in writing specifying such conditions as he may consider fit. Any such suspension or relaxation may be revoked at any time.

 

Precautions in use of electrical energy

 

(49)     Earthing

Electrical energy other than that generated by an independent generating unit on board shall not be taken for use, or used in, or in connection with any of the operations unless that body of the ship is securely earthed in such a manner as to ensure an immediate and safe discharge of energy to the earth. A ship or vessel shall not be considered as securely earthed for the purpose of this sub-rule only on account of it being partly submerged in water.

 

(50)     Arc welding

(a)               Electric are welding shall not be carried on in connection with any of the operations unless separate and fully insulated welding return conductor or conductors as the case may be, of adequate electrical capacity are provided for return of the current to the transformer or generator of the welding set.

 

(b)               The return end of the source of the welding current shall not be earthed.

 

(c)               All work on which welding is carried on shall be securely earthed independently to an earth electrode by means of a  conductor or conductors as the case may be, of adequate capacity, unless all such work are connected to any structure of the ship or vessel in such a manner as to ensure adequate connection to earth as aforesaid.

 

(51)     Cutting of energy in certain cases

Electrical energy shall be cut off from all  portable electric tools and manual electrode holders within any tank, compartment or space referred to in sub-rules (34) and (40) or in any other confined space during all times when such tools or holders are not in operations:

Provided that for determining whether any such portable electric tool or electrode holder is not in operation, no account shall be taken of brief interruptions of work occurring during normal working.

Provided further that energy may not be cut off from any such equipment if a responsible person is left in charge of it in such tank, compartment or space concerned.

Provided further that cutting of all electrical energy by operation of any switch or control provided on the portable tool or electrodes itself should not be taken as fulfilling the requirement of this sub-rule.

 

Miscellaneous safety provisions

(52)     Lighting

All parts of a vessel and all other places where the operations are being carried on, and all approaches to such parts and to places to which a worker may be required to proceed in the course of his employment, shall be sufficiently and suitably lighted.  In  provided such lighting, due regard shall be given to avoidance of glare and formation of shadows, to the safety of the vessel and cargo, of the navigation of other vessels, and to any local statutory requirements as to the lighting of the harbour or dock.

 

(53)     Work in boilers, etc.

(a)               No work shall be permitted in any boiler, boiler-furnace or boiler-flue until it has been sufficiently cooled to make work safe for the workers.

 

(b)               Before any worker enters any steam boiler which is one of a range of two or more steam boilers-

 

(i)         all inlets through which steam or hot water might otherwise enter the boiler from any other part of the range shall be disconnected from that part; or

 

(ii)        all valves or taps controlling such entry shall be closed and securely locked

.

(c)               While workers remain in any steam boiler to which clause (b) of this sub-rule applies all such inlets as are referred to in that clause shall remain disconnected or all such valves or taps as are therein referred to shall remain closed and securely locked.

 

(d)               No worker shall be allowed or required to enter or remain in, and no person shall enter or remain, in any steam boiler to which clause (b) of this sub-rule applies unless the provisions of that clause are being complied with.

 

(54)     Hatch beams

The hatch beams of any hatch in use for the operations shall, if not removed, be adequately secured to prevent their displacement.

(55)     Jumped-up bolts

Bolts which have been jumped-up and re-screwed shall not be used for securing plates on the sides of vessels, and no worker shall use such bolts for this purpose.

(56)     Work in or on life boats

 

(a)               Before workers are permitted to work in or on any life boat, either stowed or in suspended position, precautions shall be taken to prevent the boat from falling due to accidental tripping of the releasing gear or movement of the davits, and capsizing of the boat if in the chocks.

 

(b)               Workers shall not be permitted to remain in life boats while the life boats are being hoisted into final stowed position.

 

Protective wear

 

(57)     Hand protection

 

Adequate protection for the hands shall be available for all workers when using cutting or welding apparatus to which oxygen or any flammable gas or vapour is supplied at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure or when engaged in machine caulking or machine riveting or in transporting or stacking plates or in handling plates at machines.

 

(58)           Protection in connection with cutting or welding

 

(a)               Suitable goggles fitted with tinted eye-pieces shall be provided  and maintained for all persons employed when using cutting or welding apparatus to which oxygen or any flammable gas or vapour is supplied at a pressure above atmospheric pressure.

 

(b)               There shall be provided and maintained for the use of all persons employed when engaged in the process of electric welding  -

 

(i)         suitable helmets or suitable head-shields or suitable hand shields to protect the eyes and face from hot metal and from rays likely to be injurious; and

 

(ii)               suitable gauntlets to protect the hands and forearms from hot metal and from rays likely to be injurious.

 

(c)               When electric welding is in progress at any place and persons other than those engaged in that process are employed  in a position where the rays are likely to be injurious to their eyes, screens shall, where practicable, be provided at that place for the protection of those persons. Where it is not practicable to provide effective protection of those persons by screening, suitable goggles shall be provided for their use.

 

(59)     Eye protection for other processes

 

Suitable goggles or effective screens shall be provided to protect the eyes of all workers in any of the following processes –

 

(a)   the cutting out or cutting off of cold rivets or bolts from boilers or other plant or from ship;

 

(b)   the chipping, scaling or scurfing of boiler or ships’ plates:

 

(c)   drilling by means of portable machine tools; and

 

(d)   dry grinding of metals.

 

(60)     Head protection

 

When workers are employed in areas where there is danger of falling objects they shall be provided with suitable safety helmets.

 

(61)     Safety belts and life lines

 

(a)               Whenever any worker is engaged on work at a place from which he is liable to fall more than 2 metres, he shall be provided with safety belts equipped with life lines which are secured with a minimum of a slack, to a fixed structure  unless any other effective means such as provision of guard rails or ropes are taken to prevent his falling.

 

(b)               All safety belts and life lines shall be examined at frequent intervals by a competent person to ensure that no belt or life line which is not in good condition is used.

 

Health and welfare

 

(62)     Prohibition of employment of young persons in certain processes

 

            No young person shall be employed in

 

(a)               the application of asbestos by means of a spray;

(b)               the breaking down for removal of asbestos lagging;

(c)               the cleaning of sacks or other containers which have contained asbestos;

(d)               the cutting of material containing asbestos by means of portable power driven saws; or

(e)               the scaling, scurfing or cleaning of boilers, combustion chambers or smoke box, where his work exposes him to  dust of such a character and to such an extent as to be likely to be injurious or offensive to persons employed in such work.

 

(63)     Lead processes

 

(a)               Lead paint shall not be applied in the form of a spray in the interior painting of any part of a ship or vessel.

 

(b)               Wherever lead sheating work is carried on for making cold storage chambers in the ships, efficient exhaust draughts with portable extractors should be provided to remove the lead fumes from the confined spaces.

 

(64)     Stretchers, ambulances and ambulance rooms, etc.

 

(a)               In every shipyard they  shall be provided and kept readily available

 

(i)         a sufficient number of suitably constructed sling stretchers or other similar appliances for raising injured persons;

 

(ii)               a sufficient number of carrying or wheel stretchers; and

 

(iii)             a sufficient supply of suitable reviving apparatus and oxygen, and the stretchers, appliance and apparatus so provided shall be properly maintained.

 

(b)               In every shipyard there shall always be readily available during working hours a responsible person or responsible persons whose duty it is to summon an ambulance or other means of transport if needed in cases of accident or illness. Legible copies of a notice indicating that person or, as the case may be, those persons shall be affixed in prominent positions in every shipyard.

 

(c)               In every shipyard other than a dry dock available for hire –

 

(i)         in which the number of persons employed normally exceeds five hundred; or

 

(ii)               in which the number of persons employed normally exceeds one hundreds and which is more than ten miles from a hospital;

 

there shall be provided and maintained in good order and in clean condition a properly constructed ambulance room containing at least the equipment prescribed in the rules framed under section 45 of the Act. The room shall be used only for the purpose of treatment and rest and shall be in the charge of a suitably qualified person who shall always be readily available during working hours, and record shall be kept of all cases of accident or sickness treated at the room.

Training and Supervision

 

(65)     Young persons

 

(a)         No young person shall, until he has been employed in a shipyard or shipyards for at least  six months, be employed in connection with the operations in a shipyard on a stage from which, or in any part of a ship where, he is liable to fall from a height of more than 2 metres or into water in which there is a risk of drowning.

 

(b)         Any young person under the age of sixteen shall, when employed in the operations in shipyard, be placed under the charge of an experienced workman.

 

(66)     Safety supervision

 

In the case of every shipyard other than a dry dock available for hire, being a shipyard where the number of workers regularly or from time to time exceeds five hundred, a person experienced in the work of such yards shall be appointed and employed exclusively to exercise general supervision of the observance of these rules and to promote the safe conduct of the work generally.

 

76.       Reaction vessels and kettles

 

(1)               This rule applies to reaction vessels and kettles, hereinafter referred to as reaction vessels, which normally work at a pressure not above the atmospheric pressure but in which there is likelihood of pressure being created above the atmospheric pressure due to reaction getting out of control or any other circumstance.

 

(2)               In the event of the vessel being heated by electrical means, a suitable thermostatic control device shall be provided to prevent the temperature exceeding the safe limit.

 

(3)               Where steam,  is used for heating purposes in a reaction vessel, it shall be supplied through a suitable pressure reducing valve or any other suitable automatic device to prevent the maximum permissible steam pressure being exceeded, unless the pressure of the steam in the supply line itself cannot exceed the said maximum permissible pressure.

 

(4)               (4) A suitable safety valve or rapture disc of adequate size and capacity shall be provided to effectively prevent the pressure being built up in the reaction vessel beyond the safe limit.  Effective arrangements shall be made to ensure that the released gases, fumes, vapours, liquids, or dusts, as the case may be, are led away and disposed of through suitable pipes without causing any hazard.  Where flammable gases or vapours are likely to be vented out from the vessel, the discharge and shall be provided with a flame arrester.

 

(5)               Every reaction vessel shall be provided with a pressure gauge having the appropriate range.

 

(6)               In addition to the devices as mentioned in the foregoing provisions, means shall be provided for automatically stopping the feed into the vessel as soon as process conditions deviate from the normal limits to an extent which can be considered as dangerous.

 

(7)               Wherever necessary, an effective system for cooling, flooding or blanketing shall be provided, for the purpose of controlling the reaction and process conditions within the safe limits of temperature and pressure.

 

(8)               An automatic auditory and visual warning device shall be provided for clear warning whenever process conditions exceed the present limits. This device, whenever possible, shall be integrated with automatic process correction systems.

 

(9)               A notice pointing out the possible circumstances in which pressures above atmospheric pressure may be built up in the reaction, the dangers involved and the precautions to be taken by the operators shall be displayed at a conspicuous place near the vessel.

 

 

Rule prescribed under Sections 41 and 112

 

77.       Examination of eye sight of certain workers

 

(1)               `No person shall be employed to operate a crane, locomotive or fork - lift truck, or to give signals to a crane or locomotive operator unless his eye sight and colour vision have been examined and declared fit by a qualified ophthalmologist to work whether with or without the use of corrective glasses.

 

(2)               The eye sight and colour vision of the person employed as referred to in clause (1) shall be examined at least once in every period of 12 months up to the age of 45 years and once in every 6 months beyond that age.

 

(3)               Any fee payable for an examination of a person under this sub-rule shall be paid by the occupier and shall not be recoverable from that person.

 

(4)               The record of examination or re-examination carried out as required under sub-rule (i) shall be maintained in  Form 6.

 

Rule prescribed under Sections 41 & 112

 

78.       Railways in factories

 

(1)               This rule shall apply to railways in the precincts of a factory which are not subject to Indian Railways Act, 1890.

 

(2)               Gateways.- A gateway through which a railway track passes shall not be used for the general passage of workers into out of a factory.

 

(3)               Barriers and Turngates –

 

(a)         Where building or wall contain doors or gates which open to a railway  track, a barrier about 1 metre high shall be fixed parallel to and about 60 cm. away from the building or wall outside the opening and extending several feet beyond it at either end, so that any person passing out become aware of an approaching train when his pace is checked at the barrier.

 

If the traffic on the nearest track is all in one direction, the barrier shall be in the form of an “L” with the end of the short leg abutting on to the wall and the other end opening towards the approaching train.

 

(b)         If the distance between wall and track cannot be made to accommodate such a barrier, the barrier or a turngate shall be placed at the inside of the opening.

 

(c)          Where a footway passes close to a building or other obstruction as it approaches a railway track, a barrier or a turngate shall be fixed in such a manner that a person approaching the track is compelled to move away from the building or obstruction  and thus obtain timely sight  of an approaching locomotive or wagon.

 

(4)       Crowds

 

(a)         Workers’ pay-windows, first-aid stations and other points where a crowd may collect shall not be placed near a railway track.

 

(b)         At any time of the day when workers are starting or ending work, all railway traffic shall cease for not less than five minutes.

 

(5)       Locomotives

 

(a)               No locomotive shall be used in shutting operations unless it is in good working order.

 

(b)               Every locomotive and tender shall be provided with efficient brakes, all of which shall be maintained in good working order. Brake shoes shall be examined at suitably fixed intervals and those that are worn out replaced at once.

 

(c)               Water-gauge glasses of every locomotive, whatever its boiler pressure, shall be protected with substantial glass or metal screens.

 

(d)               Suitable steps and hand-holds shall be provided at the corners of the locomotive for the use of shunters.

 

(e)               Every locomotive crane shall be provided with lifting and jacking pads at the four corners of the locomotive for assisting in re-railing operations.

 

(f)                 It shall be clearly indicated on every locomotive crane in English and in language understood by the majority of the workers in the factory, for what weight of load and at what radius the crane is safe.

 

(6)       Wagons

 

(a)               Every wagon (and passenger coach, if any) shall be provided either with self-acting brakes capable of being applied continuously or with efficient hand brakes which shall be maintained in good working order. The hand brakes shall be capable of being applied by a person on the ground and fitted with a device for retaining them in the applied position.

 

(b)               No wagon shall be kept standing within 3 metres of the authorised crossing.

 

(c)               No wagon shall be moved with the help of crow bars or pinch bars.

 

(7)               Riding on locomotive wagon or other rolling stock

 

No person shall be permitted to be upon (whether inside or outside) any locomotive, wagon or after rolling stock except where secure foothold and handhold are provided.

 

(8)       Attention to brakes and doors

 

(a)         No locomotive, wagon or other rolling stock shall be kept standing unless its brakes are firmly applied and, where it is on a gradient, without sufficiently number of properly constructed scotches placed firmly in position.

 

(b)         No train shall be set in motion until the shunting jamadar has satisfied himself that all wagon doors are securely fastened.

 

(9)       Projecting loads and cranes

 

(a)         If the load on a wagon projects beyond its length, a guard or dummy-truck shall be used beneath the projection.

 

(b)         No loco-crane shall travel without load unless the jib is completely lowered and positioned in line with the track.

 

(c)         When it is necessary for a loco-crane to travel with a load, the jib shall not be swung until the loco-crane has come to rest.

 

(10)     Loose shunting

 

Loose-shunting shall be permitted only when it cannot be avoided. It shall never be performed on a wagon not accompanied by a man capable of applying and pinning down the brakes. A wagon not provided with brakes in good working order and capable of being easily pinned down shall not be loose shunted unless there is attached to it at least another wagon with such brakes. Loose-shunting shall not be performed with, or against a wagon containing passengers, live stock or explosives.

 

(11)     Fly-shunting

 

Fly-shunting shall not be permitted on any factory railway.

 

(12)     The shunting jamadar

 

(a)               Every locomotive or wagon in motion in a factory shall be in charge of a properly trained jamadar.

 

(b)               Before authorising a locomotive or wagon to be moved, the shunting jamadar shall satisfy himself that no person is under or in-between or in front of the locomotive or wagon.

 

(13)     Hand signals

 

      The hand signals used by the shunting jamadar by day and night shall be those prescribed by the shunting rules of railways, working under the Indian Railway Act (IX of 1890).

 

(14)     Night work and fog

 

(a)               In factories where persons work at night, no movement of locomotive, wagon or other rolling stock otherwise than by hand shall be permitted between sunset and sunrise unless the tracks and their vicinity are lighted in a scale of not less than 10 lux as measures at the horizontal plane at the ground level.

 

(b)               In no circumstances shall any locomotive or train be moved between sunset and sunrise or at any time when there is fog, unless it carries a white head light and a rear light.

 

(15)     Speed control

 

(a)               A locomotive or train shall not be permitted to move at a speed greater than seven kilometres per hour.

 

(b)               A train, locomotive, wagon or other rolling stock shall not be moved by mechanical or electrical power unless it is preceded at a distance of not less than 10 metres during the whole of its journey by a shunting jamadar. He shall be provided with signalling flags or lamp and whistle necessary for calling the attention of the driver.

 

(16)     Tracks

 

(a)       The distance

 

(i)         between tracks and

(ii)               between tracks and buildings, blind walls or other structures and

(iii)             tracks and materials deposited on the ground shall be respectively not less than

 

(aa)     from centre to centre of parallel tracks, the overall width of the widest wagon of that guage plus twice the width of the door of such a wagon when opened directly outward plus 1 metre.

(bb)          from a building or structure other than a loading platform to the centre of the nearest track, half the overall width of the widest wagon of that guage, plus the w